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Interactions and Energy-Loss Processes
Cosmic rays interact with interstellar matter in our galaxy or other galaxies. The highest energy cosmic rays, the most energetic particles known in the Universe are probably extra-galactic. During their propagation through the Universe, the interaction processes illustrated in Figures below give rise to cascading, with much of the energy going into electrons and photons cascading down to the 1GeV gamma-ray range.
Protons interact with photons resulting in pion production and pair production:
Electrons interact via inverse-Compton scattering and triplet pair production and emit also synchrotron radiation:
Gamma-rays interact by pair production: