Departments of Physics

Mathematical Physics

Mawson Institute for Antarctic Research








1886 – 1986






Some reflections on






Edited by E.H. Medlin








Introduction                                                                                                   1


Advertisement and offer of appointment                                                        3


The Life and Work of Sir William Bragg by

Sir Kerr Grant                                                                                               5


The Appointment of W.H., Bragg F.R.S., to the University

by Dr. John Jenkin                                                                                      38


List of Graduates                                                                                        59


Prize winners                                                                                              73


Holders of named Offices                                                                           78


Academic staff                                                                                            83




Many people have collaborated in the attempt to collect raw material for this 1986 Bragg Centenary. It has not been a straightforward task even to attempt to collect complete and accurate data over the 100 years since 1886. There are inconsistencies between Acts, Statutes, decisions by the Council, Registrarial practices and so on, not to mention the (wholly understandable) vagaries of departmental approaches to their origins and histories.


Most of us engaged in this exercise are (well-intentioned) amateurs and, as such, have felt privileged to assemble the material for plundering in good time by the real professionals. We have been awed by the professional expertise by Rod Home, Susan Woodburn and Pamela Runge but we have had to press on, regrettable errors and omissions no doubt notwithstanding. We hope that we have prepared a reasonable base for serious reflection and scholarship.


The graduate list presented herein is that of the Bragg Centenary Commemoration Programme supplemented by those past B.Sc. students who have responded to our public call to identify themselves with one or the other of the three departments involved. With regard to Prize and Scholarship winners we have deliberately restricted ourselves to achievements whilst in Adelaide.


Certain biographical material was available for some of the many graduates and staff who have achieved distinction in other parts of the world. That material is insufficiently complete to justify inclusion. For the time being, it is regretted that names will have to speak for themselves.


The essential criterion applied in the listing of academic staff has been that the positions and incumbents should have been listed in the University Calendars. Records of distinguished visitors are very incomplete and partial listing was judged to be invidious; the same is true of the general staff many of whom served with distinction over many years. It is to be hoped that this regrettable defect will be corrected, and quickly.




The Committee that conceptualized these Celebrations, under the general stewardship of

W.G. Elford, was:‑


P. Berry‑Smith

A. Del Fabbro

A. Ewart

H.S. Green

R.B. Potts

S.G. Tomlin

E.H. Medlin (Chairman)


Thanks are due and acknowledgement is made to the following for their generous services:-

Peter Berry-Smith, Basil Briggs, Don Creighton, Albert Del Fabbro, Graham Elford, Alan Ewart, Maxine Ewart, David Fearnside, Oliver Fuller, Mary Genovese, Wayne Hocking, Rod Home,

John Jenkin, Keith Merry, John Prescott, Pamela Runge, Peter Schebella, Arlene Shaw, Stan Tomlin, Rosemary Vasey and Susan Woodburn.  The dedication of Alan and Maxine Ewart, of Albert Del Fabbro and of Arlene Shaw is particularly acknowledged.


The Celebrations have been strongly supported by "The University of Adelaide Foundation" and our gratitude is expressed and hereby recorded.


Finally, the whole occasion has been endorsed as an Official South Australia Jubilee 150 Event. The discipline of physics is now practiced in three buildings. The main Physics Building was the first gift of a building (1926) to the University by the State Government and commemorates its Diamond Jubilee this year. The other two buildings commemorate two of our greatest scholars, namely Sir William Bragg and Sir Mark Oliphant. We are privileged to share our Celebrations not only with the comet but also with the community, which we aim to serve, and especially during this Official Event with our presentations from Professors Stephen Bragg, Frank Close, Paul Davies, Freeman Dyson and Brian Matthews.


Harry Medlin. 1 April 1986.





















Sir Kerr Grant


Emeritus Professor of Physics

University of Adelaide


*Reproduced by courtesy of the University of Queensland.






The celebrated autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini begins with the words "it is the duty of all men who during their life‑time have accomplished anything of merit to write an account of their life with their own hand". In default of such a self‑recorded history it may perhaps be said with equal justification that this obligation devolves upon the contemporaries or successors of a famous man to see that the story of his life and deeds is fully and faithfully recorded in order that posterity way know what manner of man he was to whom it owes a debt of service or achievement. This public duty is, in fact, one of those specifically laid down in the terms under which the John Murtagh Macrossan Foundation was established, and it has been previously honoured on many occasions in this series of lectures.


In selecting the "Life and Work of Sir William Bragg" as another to be commemorated under this Foundation, the Professorial Board of the University of Queensland has made no unworthy choice; in honouring me with an invitation to undertake the task, reason was doubtless found primarily in the fact of my succession to him in the Chair of Physics in the University of Adelaide.


The association thus entailed with his former colleagues on the staff of the University, his relatives and friends in Adelaide, and old students who attended his classes does indeed place me in a privileged position to obtain from them and from other sources, first‑hand information concerning the man himself and the details of his life while he lived among them; further, it was, no doubt, assumed that a Professor of Physics might be expected to posses, at the least, a general acquaintance with those aspects of Physical Science, to which, in the main, Bragg's researches and discoveries belong.


I can only hope that such advantages ass I may possess in these respects may serve in some degree to outweigh the disadvantage of my inexperience in the art of literary presentation in this field.


But whether or not the choice of a biographer has been wisely made, it was at any rate a wise decision not to postpone too long the interval between the death of the subject of the biography and the collection and recording of the factual data which must form the foundation for a story of his life.


The apocryphal elements in the life‑histories of many famous men warn us how soon in the absence of reliable temporary records, many things we would wish to know concerning their lives are either irrecoverably lost, incrusted with the lore of legendary fiction or shrouded in the mists of myth. How soon too, does the opportunity pass for the biographer to secure from the relatives, friends and acquaintances of one deceased, direct testimony concerning his personal characteristics, the circumstances of his daily life and all the trivial yet nevertheless significant actions and events without knowledge of which he can at best prepare a mere factual record devoid of the human appeal and living semblance of a "flesh‑and‑blood" portraiture.


Already, in the case of Sir William Bragg, two only of his former colleagues on the staff of the University of Adelaide ‑ Sir William, Mitchell and Sir Douglas Mawson survive, and only two relatives by marriage ‑ Miss L.G. Todd and Mrs. Guy Fisher are now resident in Adelaide.




Sources of Information


His only, surviving son, William Lawrence (now Sir Lawrence) and his only daughter Gwendolen (Mrs. Alban Caroe) are resident in England. Sir Lawrence Bragg has been so kind as to send to me excerpts from an autobiographical statement of his father concerning his early life prior to coming to Australia.


Miss Lorna Todd has furnished me with a most interesting statement setting forth her reminiscences of Bragg's associations with her father, Sir Charles Todd and his family culminating in his marriage to her younger sister. Sir William Mitchell also has told me much concerning his colleague during his tenure of the Chair of Mathematics and Physics in Adelaide University. Sir John Madsen, who was Lecturer of Electrical Engineering in Adelaide during the last years of Bragg's term as Professor of Physics and who co‑operated with him in research work, still recalls clearly the conversation in which Bragg told him of the new point of view at which he had arrived regarding the nature of alpha‑rays, a point of view which subsequently led to a triumphal march of successes in experimental research. Others, whose acquaintance with him was of a more limited character such as that of student to teacher ‑ have contributed items of personal recollection.


My own opportunities of a close personal acquaintance with Bragg were unfortunately few, comprising only one brief meeting in Melbourne shortly prior to his departure to England; subsequently, occasional meetings and conversations during my visits to England in 1919, 1927 and 1931, and occasional correspondence.


Of literary sources available to me the most valuable as a record of his work and picture of his personality is the excellent obituary written by Professor Andrade of London University for the Royal Society of London.


A full appreciation of his scientific achievements could, of course, only be based upon a critical study and evaluation of ‑ the numerous papers contributed by him to the proceedings of scientific journals, or as set forth in the several books in which the contents of these were collected and integrated. It is neither my intention nor my prerogative to attempt more in these lectures towards such an appreciation than to endeavour to indicate the salient points in method and the main results of his researches. Sir Lawrence Bragg has informed me that it is his intention to write a full biography of his father and an account of his scientific work when in a few years time his retirement from office will afford him the leisure to undertake the task.


In the realm of popular exposition Bragg was an acknowledged master. Several lecture‑courses which he gave at the Royal Institution are published in book form. These also aid his biographer in his efforts to attain the difficult goal of "presenting a life‑work in full and significant delineation".




William Henry Bragg was the son of Robert Henry Bragg who, at the early age of 25, gave up a post in the British Merchant Navy to purchase and cultivate a farm in the village of Westward near the town of Wigton in Cumberland. His mother, Mary Wood, was the daughter of the Vicar of the parish.


There seems to be little evidence to permit of a decision on the controversial and invidious question as to whether the son owed his outstanding intelligence to his father or to his mother. Moreover, in the light of the science genetics, the question is over‑simplified, the grand‑parents and even




remoter progenitors are claimants also to whatever congenital merit or demerit is assigned to any one of their descendants.


Heredity, despite the mathematical regularities which the work of Mendel and his successors have revealed in its operation, can play strange tricks. The appearance in their off‑spring of characteristics which neither parent is eager to claim as his (or her) donation ‑ I have been told ‑ a not infrequent source of marital altercation; the occasional Emergence of individuals of exceptional ability from a line of undistinguished ancestry (such illustrious names as those of Newton, Faraday and Einstein immediately occur to a physicist) may seem even more inexplicable.


On the other hand there is abundant evidence to show that, in common with other physical and mental characteristics, exceptional ability can and does descend from generation to generation. In England we have as illustrious instances of hereditary scientific genius the families of Darwin, of Herschel and of Huxley. There is already sufficient evidence to justify the addition of the name of Bragg in his honourable gallery.


The possession of exceptional scientific and mathematical ability is fully attested for two generations in the achievements of father (W.H.) and son (W.L.); less well known is the possession of distinctive artistic talent by the father (W.H.), his second son Robert (killed at Gallipoli) and his daughter Gwendolen (now Mrs. Alban Caroe). I learn from Miss Todd that the genes of genius have persisted into a third generation. Sir Lawrence Bragg's eldest son has had a distinguished scholastic career in mathematics at Rugby and at Cambridge, where, in succession which is probably unique, he is a Scholar of Trinity. In the second son the gene of artistic ability is again strongly dominant.


Childhood and Early Education


Both Bragg I s parents died young ‑ his mother when he was only seven ‑ and the responsibility of providing him with a home and education was willingly accepted by an uncle, William Bragg, who lived in the town of Market Harborough in Leicestershire, and had played a part in the re‑establishment of the local grammar school.


In some notes written by himself at the age of 70 concerning his early life, which I owe to the courtesy of Sir Lawrence, Bragg has given an interesting account of his experience at this school. It was not a very large one. " I was one of the six boys", he said "with which it opened. At the end of the first year I was given a scholarship exempting me from payment of fees. At the prize-giving ‑ there were many more than six boys at that time ‑ my name was called out and I went up to the desk to get the scholarship, not knowing what it was. I was puzzled and disappointed to go back empty‑handed."


The precocity which is a common if not an invariable indication of future genius, was not lacking in the school‑boy Bragg. At the early age of eleven he entered for and passed in the "Oxford Junior Locals", the youngest boy in England to get through.


His home life during this period, despite the care and affection bestowed upon him, was perhaps unfortunate in respect of the narrow religious atmosphere which prevailed, with its insistence on an unquestioning acceptance of prevalent orthodox beliefs.




At the age of 13, having probably reached the limit of the school's capacity to go further, his uncle sent him to King William's College in the Isle of Man. Here he rapidly developed a proficiency in his studies ‑ and especially in mathematics ‑ on the one hand and in school sports on the other.


This latter accomplishment was fortunate, for he confesses to having been a shy and retiring boy ‑ though it seems likely that this may have been due mainly to the fact that he was younger than his classmates ‑ and to excel in games was probably then, as now, a school boy's surest passport to popularity with his fellows. He rose, at any rate, to be Head of the school. In 1880 he entered for the examination for Scholarships at Trinity College, Cambridge, and was awarded one, but on advice of the authorities, delayed his entrance for a year.


It was in this year, at the age of 18 ‑ a critical period in the emotional life of an adolescent ‑ that the school he attended was, in Andrade's words, "swept by a storm of religious emotionalism" in which Bragg by reason of the revolt of his reason and sympathy against the irrational and inhuman dogmas of Athanasian theology, was involved so deeply as to recede rather than to progress in his studies and failed at the next scholarship examination to equal his previous performance. Nevertheless, he was awarded a minor scholarship and entered Trinity College, Cambridge University in 1881


In this new environment where ‑ unless the social and intellectual climate of Cambridge was very different then from what it is today ‑ at atmosphere of spiritual freedom and intellectual tolerance envelops the formalities of religious observance and the dogmas of theology this brief unhappy interlude of religious melancholia could not endure, and the young Bragg entered upon a new life full of interest and enjoyment.


He now lived and worked as a student in Trinity College he has told in his own words, written in 1927.


" I went up to Cambridge in 1881, taking the rather unusual course of beginning work there in the Long: I suppose I was in Cambridge six weeks or so, July and part of August. But I forget the exact date. I had rooms in master's Court. I appreciated thoroughly the beauty of the whole place; and I liked going to Routh's classes. It was lonely, because I was doing the unusual thing: and I had no companions. But it was good all the same. As a scholar of the College I went up every Long afterwards: it was always a jolly time. Very few restrictions: just the regular classes three times a week with Routh, and the preparation for them. After that tennis in plenty: boating on the river above Cambridge, and the summer weather, and Cambridge looking its best. I tried during that preliminary long to get through an exam that would excuse me the Littlego: and I failed in Latin, which seems to me now to be very odd, as I had studied Latin from the time I was seven and given a lot of schooling time to it, and worked conscientiously too! I had to take the Littlego, in November after all.


Cambridge gave me a good time, of course: although I might have done mach better if I had known more or been more easily sociable. I ought to have gone to lectures on other subjects than mathematics, and taken an interest in other things. It simply did not occur to me. I could not afford, or thought I could not afford, to join the Union or the Boating Club: which cut of f a good many opportunities. I had none of those experiences of discussion of the world and its problems with other young men, which many men seem to look back upon with so much pleasure. I worked at the mathematics all the morning, from about 5‑7 in the afternoon and an hour or so every evening, and then bed fairly early. Every




afternoon I played a game, generally tennis, or went for a walk: my tennis was fairly good, so that I always found people ready to play."


There is an omission of a sentence or two in this except which can be made good from Andrade's obituary; it refers to the congratulations received from friends on his success in the Tripos examination. One of these was A.N. Whitehead, later of world‑wide reputation as a mathematician (he offered a derivation of the principle of relativity alternative to Einstein's) and philosopher (he is now Professor of Philosophy at Harvard) "who came and shook me by the hand saying 'may a fourth wrangler congratulate a third."' He had been fourth the year before.


After his crowning success, Bragg continued his mathematical studies and sat for the more advanced examination, Part III of the Tripos, as it then was. of the result of this he says, humorously, "I believe that none of us did too well, but nearly all got Firsts because the Senior Wrangler did not do any better than we did and they could not give him a second."




Bragg, in his reminiscences, tells the story of how he came to apply for and be appointed to a Professorship in the University of Adelaide. In 1885 the Chair of Mathematics and Physics had been rendered vacant by the resignation of Professor Horace Lamb, who was the first occupant at the date when the University was established in 1874 and who now wished to return to England, where he had been offered the Chair of Pure Mathematics in the Owens College, Manchester. According to a practice still customary, the vacancy was advertised in the English press. Bragg had seen the advertisement but had not though of applying, believing that his youth (he was only 23) and entire lack of teaching experience would make his chance of appointment negligible. However, on his way to a lecture by J.J. Thomas (afterwards famous for his discoveries in the realm of atomic physics) he was joined by the lecturer, with whom he also had social acquaintance. The conversation turn on the Adelaide Chair. As a result of Thomson's advice Bragg telegraphed an application ‑ it was the last day of entry.


There were only a few applicants and Bragg was one of the three on the “short list" selected for interview. The interviewers were Professor Lamb, J.J. Thomson, and the Agent-General for South Australia, Sir Arthur Blyth. They also called in, to assist them in making a final choice, an Adelaide man who happened to be in London at the time. He was Mr. (afterwards Sir) Charles Todd who certainly did not know then that he was helping to bring to Australia not merely a professor but his own future son-in-law.


Another applicant much senior to Bragg was a Senior Wrangler of great ability whose claim to preference was, however, discounted by, his partiality for the contents of the bottle which, if it sometimes cheers, too often inebriates. So the choice fell upon Bragg, to whom it was first conveyed by a telegram from Australia that same evening, worded "As new professor of Mathematics and Physics in Adelaide University would you give some particulars of your career." Bragg's delight in an appointment which offered him, in his own words, "an assured position, a salary beyond all expectation (£800 a year), a new country with all the adventure of going abroad to it, and a breakaway from being a subject, to be now my own master" was tempered by the distress which the prospect of losing him caused to his worthy and benevolent old uncle to whom he was evidently as dear as a son, a distress, however, relieved by pride in "his nephew the professor".




Fifty years later Bragg could still recall and record the enthusiasm and excitement of the preparations for departure: the novel experiences of the voyage to Australia in the largest vessel of the P. & 0. fleet ‑ the "Rome" of 4,500 tons ‑ and his efforts to learn something about physics (for his studies at Cambridge had been confined to Mathematics alone) during the voyage by reading Deschanel's Electricity and Magnetism!


Long years afterwards, when I paid him a visit in London and congratulated him on his appointment as Fullerian Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Institution, he said with humorous enjoyment: "The joke of it is that I always seem to be appointed as professor in subjects about which I know nothing." It was true, no doubt, that when he went to Adelaide he knew little or nothing of the formal physics of the text book; possibly true that when he took the Fullerian Chair of Chemistry not much more of text‑book Chemistry. But these deficiencies of academic knowledge had the advantage of leaving him with a clean sheet on which to write his own self‑acquired knowledge on these subjects and, as one of his most distinguished disciples (Dr. W.T. Astbury) says: "He had the most amazing faculty of taking up a subject on which he had only the foggiest ideas to begin with and quickly improving it out of all recognition."


From the first day of his arrival Bragg thoroughly enjoyed his life in Australia. He was fortunate in that the acquaintance already made in London with Charles Todd ‑ who was Director of the Adelaide Observatory ‑ immediately opened to him the door of a delightful domestic circle comprising in addition to the father and mother, three daughters and two sons. Very soon he, with a new friend, the late Dr. Alfred Lendon, became a regular Sunday afternoon and evening visitor at the Observatory home. “We were a cheerful party there," writes Miss Lorna Todd (who was eight years old at the time). "Fierce arguments over religious and social subjects were the order of the day amongst the men. The irresponsible and illogical chatter of my sisters" (thus irreverently did this child of eight characterise the conversation of her older sisters) "delighted him most. It was a revelation to a young man who had been taught to weigh every word he uttered, and he blossomed under the cheerful and inconsequent atmosphere."


A very natural and happy sequel to this idyll of domesticity was the marriage in the year 1889 of William Henry Bragg to Gwendoline, third daughter of Sir Charles and Lady Todd.


Of this marriage there was issue to sons, the first, William Lawrence (now Sir Lawrence, Director of the Cavendish Laboratory); the second, Robert, who was killed in the Gallipoli misadventure of World War I, and one daughter Gwendolen (Gwendy) now Mrs. Alban Caroe of London.


Bragg, from the very first, was marked as a born teacher and lecturer. Professor Andrade says (quoting ‑ no doubt from hearsay ‑ some Adelaide source) that in his early days "he was one of the least impressive of lecturers." If there is any justification for all this disparagement it may rest either on his complete inexperience in the art of lecturing or in his disdain of the use of rhetoric in which one of his colleagues, himself a master of that "poison of sincerity" was wont to appraise the quality of another's oratory.


Students who, at a later date, attended his lectures have one and all agreed in crediting him with exceptional powers of lucid exposition, so much so, indeed, that they accuse him of having been able to invest his discourse on abstruse topics with an altogether delusive simplicity. His interest and influence in educational matters soon spread beyond the precincts of the University. The curriculum of the secondary schools in South Australia, as more or less in all Australian States, dominated then as it is now by the public



examinations syllabus, and, in particular, by the subjects demanded for matriculation, was still modeled on that of English public schools with their almost exclusive emphasis on the ancient languages and mathematics. Any scientific subject, if grudgingly permitted an hour or two a week of the time­table, was taught largely as an exercise in memorisation of the text‑book with little or no appeal to observation, lecture‑demonstration or laboratory exercises by the student.


Bragg was not long in raising his voice in criticism of this defect and in pleading the claim of science to be regarded as an educational medium of high practical value.


At the commemoration address which he gave in December, 1889, he concedes, doubtfully, the claim that the classical system of education "may perhaps develop in the younger generation the capability of fulfilling duties in certain traditional ways," but, he continues, "it does not so train their minds that, having a knowledge of the tools that modern science provides and judgement as to what may be done with them they may strike out for themselves new kinds of Work and new methods of working."


In the same address and on subsequent occasions he strongly advocated the introduction of practical work in school physics. "Every year," he said, "I have answers from book‑taught candidates which show a practical ignorance of physics." To emphasise his views he relates an amusing story of a youth's answer to an oral examination to the question:


"What is the use of a compass?"


After much hesitation came the answer:


"To find the latitude and longitude."


on the examiner asking "Could you do it?" the examinee promptly replied: No, Sir, but YOU could."


So far as the schools went, his exhortation, if heeded at all, led only to the casual and perfunctory performance of an extremely elementary type of practical exercises in physics in one or two of the larger schools. But, in his own University classes, systematic practical courses were very soon established, he himself for many years acting as instructor with little or no junior assistance.


His scientific interest seems to have turned, immediately after the assumption of his duties, from mathematics to physics. Indeed the mathematics required for the Cambridge University examinations in those days was perhaps not of a type to inspire many to pursue it further. From the first he found particular pleasure in demonstrating, both to his students in the routine lecture‑courses, and in public lectures and conversaziones, the more novel and spectacular miracle of scientific discovery. In these latter his young wife's social talents proved an invaluable asset.


Success in presenting the results of scientific research to a popular audience, unacquainted for the most part with the basic facts and principles of the special science in question, demands from the lecturer not merely a thorough understanding of his subject but the ability to translate the technical terminology of science into the language of every‑day usage. In this art, Bragg was singularly gifted. In the light of the nature of his subsequent achievements it is interesting to note that in 1895 the subject of a course of extension



lectures was "Radiation"; in 1896 "X‑rays"; in 1897 "Sound". Undoubtedly the task of preparing these lectures and the experience gained in the technique of experimental demonstration must have served to lay a solid foundation of knowledge and skill which stood him in good stead in his future researches in the fields of radio‑activity and X‑rays.


Bragg also followed with keen interest the news which reached Australia from time to time of the remarkable discoveries and developments which were at this time (1895 and onwards) taking place in Europe in these last‑named subjects and in wireless telegraphy.


But he did more than merely read about them and talk about them. He promptly set about reproducing them by his own efforts with the very slight amount of technical assistance and meagre stock of instruments and apparatus which his laboratory possessed. Especially was his interest aroused by the discovery of X‑rays by Professor Rontgen of the University of Wurzburg in 1895. Rontgen published his discovery in December, 1895; news of it reached Australia in a brief cable in January, 1896.


In common with Professors of Physics in other Australian Universities, Bragg was immediately stirred to find means to produce this new kind of "invisible light".


X‑rays are produced by the impact of an electron stream on any solid object and to realise this all that is essential is an evacuated glass bulb into which are hermetically sealed two metallic electrode, and a source of high tension electricity. The type of vacuum‑tube used by Rontgen when he made his immortal discovery, was first designed and constructed by Sir Wm. Crookes and employed by him in his researches on the passage of electricity through rarefied air; the high‑tension electricity was supplied by a Ruhmkorff induction‑coil. The meagre equipment of the physics laboratory in those days did not include a Crookes tube and to have imported one would have meant a delay of several months. Fortunately Bragg's laboratory assistant, Mr. A.L. Rogers, was skilled in the art of glass‑working and by Bragg's direction at once proceeded with the attempt to construct a small tube. In this he was ultimately successful, but before the first tube was satisfactorily completed a citizen of Adelaide, Mr. S. Barbour, returned from a visit to England bringing with him two Crookes tubes purchased from a British firm. With the co‑operation of Professor Bragg remarkably good radiographs were taken with these tubes.


Subsequently Mr. Rogers made and evacuated many tubes which were successfully employed in medical radiography.


Professor Bragg's eldest son, William Lawrence (now Sir Lawrence) was a child of five at the time of these experiments in which, nevertheless, he was on one occasion a participant. In his foreword to the publication of Messrs. Watson and Sons' book entitled "Salute to the X‑ray pioneers of Australia", Sir Lawrence writes: "I well remember my father's first experiments with X‑ray tubes, although I was only six years old at the time. I think I must have been amongst the first to be employed as a patient. I had smashed my elbow badly by a fall and was taken to a cellar in the University for the exposure. The flickering greenish light, crackling and smell of ozone were sufficiently terrifying to impress the incident deeply in a child's mind. When I think, however, of the early experiments, the interest which they aroused in medical men in Australia is not their chief significance to me! I see them as fore‑runners of my father's interest in the ionisation of gases leading to his experiments with X‑rays from radium and finally the experiments on the diffraction of X‑rays by matter which we carried out together."




The letter "X" which Rontgen chose to designate this new type of radiation, had reference of course to his confessed ignorance of their true nature. (His tentative hypothesis: "Ought not the new rays to be ascribed to longitudinal vibrations in the ether?" was fallacious.) It was not until 1912 that the experiments of von Laue in Germany, confirmed and extended in the next year by the Braggs, father and son, definitely proved them to be essentially identical in character with ordinary light. But among the apparatus which Bragg left behind him in the Physics laboratory was a large prism made of pure sulphur. On the testimony of Sir Lawrence Bragg, quoted in the publication just referred to, this was made with the special object of testing whether a beam of X‑rays would be refracted in passing through this prism. If this recollection is correct it shows that the problem of elucidating the nature of X‑rays was already occupying the elder Bragg's attention many years before its final solution. (I am personally somewhat doubtful of the correctness of this opinion, recalling the answer given to my question by Professor R.W. Chapman who as a lecturer under Bragg was in a position to have first‑hand knowledge that the prism was used for experiments on the refraction of electric (Hertzian) waves.)


In the same year in which Rontgen discovered X‑rays a young Italian, Guglielmo Marconi, was experimenting in his home town of Bologna on the transmission of signals by means of wireless telegraphy. Coming to England (his mother was Irish) in 1896 he found encouragement, financial support and technical assistance from the British General Post Office, and we all know of the remarkable developments in wireless communication which followed. In 1898 Professor Bragg was granted a year's leave of absence to visit England with a commission to inquire into matters of educational interest. His contacts with many eminent men of science must have created an interest in this new method of communication, for soon after his return he began experimenting in wireless transmission, first within the University and then from a transmitting station in the Observatory grounds to Henley Beach ‑ a distance of about five miles. I quote from Miss Lorna Todd's lively account of this event: "I think I am right," she says, "in saying that the first wireless pole to be erected in Australia was in the Observatory grounds. A receiving pole was put up on the sand‑hills at Henley Beach. My brother‑in‑law did much experimental work there. One afternoon I remember that my father asked me to pack tea and drive down with him to Henley Beach, saying he would send a 'wireless' to say that we were coming. I felt a very 'doubting Thomas' as I packed a specially nice tea and tied paper around the blackened picnic billy‑can (there were no thermos flasks in those days). However, when we got within sight of the tall pole on the sand‑hill there was my brother‑in‑law waving his arms and his cap, as thrilled as any schoolboy that the message had come through. It seemed a miracle. Both he and my father were almost boyish in the delight and the fun of the discoveries then being made so rapidly in science."




It has been a matter of remark by some who have discussed or commented upon Bragg's scientific career that his entry into the arena of scientific research should have been so long delayed.


It was not, in fact, until he had attained the age of 46 and had occupied the Chair of mathematics and Physics in the University for 18 years that he published anything of a quality entitling it to be considered as an important contribution to existing knowledge.




This long interval during which his genius for experimental research lay latent, is indeed an exception, though by no means a solitary one, to the general rule that creative imagination and scientific activity are at their highest in the spring‑time or early summer of life.


In Bragg's case there are plausible grounds of explanation for a seasonal retardation.


As already stated, his natural interests were those of the physicist, rather than of the "pure" mathematician, yet his whole academic experience previous to his election to the Adelaide Chair had lain exclusively in the former discipline. Thus before he could even glimpse the horizon which bounded the great sea of existing physical science at that date ‑ a horizon more‑over which was expanding so rapidly that it continually receded from the voyager pursuing it ‑ he had an immense leeway to make up.


It is, of course in that unknown land beyond the horizon that lies the realm of scientific discovery, the realm of "research".


But that word had 'not, half a century or earlier ago, even in scientific circles ‑and certainly not in the politics of University finance ‑ attained the portentous significance which to‑day entitled it to vie in blessedness with "Mesopotamia" of sacred utterance.


Research had not yet acquired the status of a professional business. Rather was it then regarded as a natural and unforced by‑product of academic employment and intellectual interest; subordinate, nevertheless, to the performance of the professor's contractual obligation to train his students in the discipline of his special science, and to serve the general public as an authority and consultant on whom reliance could be placed for trustworthy information or wise counsel in all matters relating to his particular province of expert knowledge. It was in such a light, doubtless, that Bragg would view the responsibilities of his post.


His teaching duties at the outset were not onerous ‑ there were in his first year only two students in the laboratory ‑ but he did not hesitate to enlarge them whenever he saw occasion and opportunity.


For the benefit of those who could not attend during the day ‑ mainly teachers in secondary schools ‑ he instituted night‑lectures and practical work, which he conducted.


Sir William Mitchell has told me of the surprise and pleasure which he felt when, on his arrival to occupy the chair of English in 1894, he found that a branch of the British Teachers' Guild in which he had been interested in Scotland had already been established by Bragg in Adelaide. The high esteem in which he was held by the teaching profession and the gratitude and affection which they felt towards him were publicly expressed in tributes paid to him at a Teachers' Conference held in July, 1908, shortly after his decision to accept the invitation from Leeds University had been announced.


It need not be denied that other and distracting human influences competed strongly with the "divine curiosity" which is the stimulus to the task of intellectual pursuits. Bragg was no indoor recluse; he was athletic in body as he was active in mind. He had a love for all healthy outdoor sports and pastimes and indulged his liking in actual participation. By his own account (already quoted) he played tennis well and no doubt, found in it pleasant opportunities of social recreation.



He took up golf and became one of several devotees among his colleagues (Mitchell and Henderson were fellow‑practitioners of that Royal and Ancient game) and become so proficient that in the year 1907 he was beaten in the championship contest only on the last two holes of the course by Henderson. He introduced the Canadian game of lacrosse to South Australia and was for several years captain of the North Adelaide Lacrosse team.


To these athletic proclivites he added artistic talents of no man order. He sketched and painted in water colours with the hand and eye of a true artist. His wife shared with him this delightful talent ‑ her teacher, Mr. H.P. Gill, would speak of her as a "first‑class artist ruined by marriage". During holidays husband and wife would sometimes sketch or paint, in company, a scene that took their fancy.


Gifted with a good musical ear, he not only enjoyed music but was himself a competent performer on the flute, an accomplishment which, on the testimony of Professor Andrade, he still practiced in his later London years.


Possessor of a fine presence and of all the social graces, he was a popular guest at social functions and entertainments whether public or private.


Fortunate in a happy marriage, blessed with and devoted to a family of two sons and a daughter, it might well be thought that he would have found his life in Adelaide so full and satisfying as to exclude all thought or wish of change or adventure either in the world of reality or the world of ideas.


But underneath all the pleasant preoccupation and lighter interests of his life there smoldered the urge to creative intellectual effort, nourished by the news of one great discovery after another in physics, and awaiting only the moment of inspiration to break out in action. Neither was this period of latent activity wholly devoid of all contribution to science.


In 1891 he contributed a paper to the Proceedings of the A. & N.Z.A.A.S. entitled "The elastic medium method of treating electrostatic theorems" and, as a sequel to this, in the following year another on "The energy of the electrostatic field", published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. This latter he amplified and presented again at the Brisbane meting of the Association in 1895.


These papers are all in the true Faraday‑Maxwell tradition, in which the mathematical theory of electric and magnetic fields is based on analogy with the state of an elastic medium under stress.


They were essays in mathematical physics which put known results in a new light, ingenious variations on well‑established theory, but they contained no result of importance previously unknown, and they neither reported nor suggested new lines of experimental research.


The occasion initiatory to such suggestion came with the duty of preparing the presidential address to Section A of the A. & N.Z.A.A.S. at the Dunedin meeting of the Association in 1904.


It is a recognised duty of sectional presidents to present to their section a resume of important recent advances in some branch of their special science. This was a time when new and surprising discoveries were revolutionising basic ideas in regard to the nature of matter, of electricity and of radiation and the mutual relations of these entities to one another.




Rontgen in 1895 had discovered X‑rays; J.J. Thomson, in 1897, had experimentally proved the existence of a universal type of electrical sub‑atom or corpuscle (now called the electron); Max Planck of Berlin had shown that light is radiated from atoms only in wave‑pulses carrying energy quanta proportionate in amount to the frequency of the waves. Einstein, in the same year in which he published his epoch‑making paper proving the relative character of space-extension and of time‑duration had also suggested an atomic aspect in the nature of light as a explanation of its power to eject electrons from surfaces on which it fell. Niels Bohr of Copenhagen had successfully applied Planck's quantum theory to solve the riddle of atomic spectra; the Curies, man and wife, following upon Henri Becquerel's discovery of the radio‑activity of the metal uranium, had isolated a new element, radium, a million times more active. Rutherford had analysed the radiation from radium and its products of disintegration and shown that it contained three entirely distinct kinds of rays ‑ which he called the alpha (a), beta (a) and gamma (y) rays.


Into this last, as yet only partially explored territory of the science of radioactivity now entered Bragg. It came about in this way.


He chose as the topic of his presidential address, "Some recent advances in the theory of ionisation".


Ionisation is a phenomenon which, as he states, "furnishes one of the principal methods by which the strange new properties of radioactive substances are made manifest and studied".


Neither air nor any other gas in its normal condition conducts the electric current. But, when irradiated by a beam of ultra‑violet light, or of X-rays, or of any of the three kinds of radiation emitted by radioactive substances, or when traversed by fast‑moving electrons, a small fraction of the molecules of a gas normally uncharged or neutral may acquire either a positive or a negative charge by losing or gaining one or more electrons. These electrically charged molecules are termed "ions", the gas is said to be "ionised" or in a state of "ionisation", and if a voltage difference is applied between two rods or plates of metal immersed in the gas, the ions drift under the influence of the electric force towards one or the other, thus effecting the transfer of electricity which constitutes an electric current.


Already in 1904 a vast amount of experimental work had been carried out by scientists in investigating the nature and properties of ions, the laws of the ionisation‑current and the properties of the various kinds of ionising agencies, in particular, the so‑called alpha, beta and gamma rays of radium. and other radioactive substances


Bragg made a critical examination of the information thus available on the penetrating and ionising powers of these three kinds of radiation (alternatively, of the absorption which they undergo in passing through matter) . He came to the conclusion that there was a radical difference in these respects between the alpha rays and the other two, concluding that whereas the main reason for the reduction in intensity and ultimate extinction of a beam of beta‑rays in passing through matter lay in the scattering of its moving electrons due to the repulsive forces exerted upon them by the fixed electrons of the atoms through which they passed, the alpha rays, by reason of their being nearly 2000 times as massive as an electron, suffered little or no such deviation from this cause and thus pursued a straight path until their initial velocity and energy were exhausted by the work done in ionising ‑ or at least "exciting" ‑ atoms through which they passed.




If this conclusion proved to be correct, it indicated, said Bragg, the following practical applications:‑


(1)       A means of identifying any species of radioactive element ‑ provided it was

           an alpha‑ray emitter ‑ by observation of the range of its rays in air;


(2)       a method of ascertaining what and how many different alpha‑ray emitters were contained in a sample of any radioactive material;


(3)       a method of comparing atoms of different kinds in regard to their "stopping power" for alpha‑rays.


His conclusion as to a limited but definite range for alpha‑rays was supported by an experiment described by Madame Curie.


A think film of the radioactive element polonium was placed on a metal plate. Parallel to this and at an adjustable distance were fixed two other plates an inch or two apart, the space between serving as an ionisation‑chamber. The plate nearest to the radioactive source had a hole in it through which rays could pass.


It was found that ionisation resulting from entry of rays through this hole took place only when the distance from hole to polonium film was less than 4cm., indicating that the alpha‑rays from polonium had a maximum range in air of that order.


On his return to Adelaide, Bragg promptly made preparation for an experimental attack on this problem. With the aid of a grant of X500 from a generous friend of the University he was able to purchase a small quantity of radium bromide and the necessary instrumental equipment. The Ionisation‑chamber he himself designed and had constructed in his small workshop by a highly skilled mechanic, Mr. A.L. Rogers. In principle it was similar to that employed by Marie Curie, but it incorporated two vital improvements. In the first place, the actual ionisation‑chamber was made very shallow, and the plate with the hole in it was replaced by a sheet of thin metal gauze which afforded easy access of the rays to the chamber. This enabled the effect of the rays to be measured at successively varying distances from their source. Secondly, by mans of stops placed vertically above the radium‑‑covered plate it was ensured that only the rays which travelled perpendicular to the plate could reach the ionization-chamber, so that the same number of rays, if any, entered the chamber whatever its distance from the source.


Just as important as the provision of the instrumental equipment was the fortuitous and fortunate discovery and employment as an assistant of a young countryman named Kleeman.


This young man while employed as a blacksmith in the country town of Tanunda, had brought himself under Bragg's favourable notice by soliciting his help in the solution of some mathematical problems. Correspondence resulted in an offer to Mr. Kleeman to come to Adelaide and, while pursuing his studies, to pay his way by acting as an observer in the experimental work on alpha‑rays.


He turned out to be well‑suited for this tedious employment; precise, careful and tireless in taking, day after day, the many hundreds of readings of the electrometer required to determine the "ionisation‑curves" which showed the relation between the distance of the shallow‑chamber from the source and origin of the rays, and the ionisation within it which measured their effects.




The results of these experiments vindicated Bragg's expectation to the full.


As the distance of the chamber from the radium or other radioactive source was increased ‑ starting from a distance of about I inch ‑ the ionisation increased with it up to a very definite limit, after which it abruptly diminished to a zero value. If the source of the rays was radium without admixture of any of the other radioactive products of its disintegration, the maximum distance or range of the rays was 3 1/2 cm. If, however, these products, namely radon (formerly termed "radium emanation"), radium A, radium B and radium C were present, the complete ionisation curve showed unmistakably the emission of alpha-rays from four of these and indicated ranges of 4.1 for radon, 4.7 for radium A and 7.0 for radium CF (radium B emits beta‑rays only).


These results not only demonstrated the correctness of Bragg's views; they furnished at the same time a convincing confirmation of the disintegration theory of radioactive transformations which had been put forward by Rutherford and Soddy only four years earlier, during their brilliant partnership in radioactive research at McGill University. Realising this, Bragg immediately sent a letter to Rutherford ‑ who was still at Montreal ‑ informing him of the results of his experiments, and, as he subsequently avowed, "eagerly awaited his reply."


When it came, warmly praising this new method of attacking the many still unsolved problems of radioactive phenomena, Bragg doubtless felt assured that any doubts he might have had as to the importance of his discoveries, could be cast aside and, with such assurance, from that time went confidently forward not only to extend his researches on alpha‑rays but to embark on a fresh voyage in another sea as yet imperfectly explored: the nature of X‑rays.


Parenthetically, it may be stated here that this first correspondence with Rutherford was not his earliest contact.


When Rutherford, at the age of 19, having been awarded that 1851 Exhibition, was on his way from New Zealand to England ‑ where he was to become a research student in the Cavendish Laboratory (then under the direction of Sir J.J. Thomson) his ship called at Adelaide and he took the opportunity to pay a hurried visit to the University and call upon the Professor of Physics. He found him in a photographic dark‑room trying to make a Hertzian oscillator work ‑presumably it was intended for use in the experiments on wireless waves already referred to. Rutherford had brought with him the "magnetic coherer" for the reception of Hertzian ‑ or "wireless" ‑ waves which he had invented while still a student in Christchurch. "Thus," says Professor Eve, in recording this incident, "there occurred a fourfold coincidence: Bragg, Rutherford, oscillator and detector."




They say that the tame tiger, having once tasted human blood, becomes thereafter a dangerous man‑eater. Bragg, in his experimental research on the alpha‑rays, having once tasted the joy of discovery, similarly realised his true vocation, and from then on followed the gleam of his "one true light" to the end of his days.


As an initiation to experimental research the work on alpha‑rays was well chosen. Here was a clear‑cut problem to which experiment could and did yield a definite solution.




Once solved, however, and obviously related questions such as the stopping‑power of the different species of atoms for the rays cleared up, he was content to leave it to others to apply the method to f ill in blank spaces and to elaborate refinements while he himself turned his attention to the more extensive field of the mysterious X‑rays.


As already stated, Rontgen himself could do no more than offer a suggestion as to their possible character. A strong similarity to light was shown in the fact that X‑rays travel in perfectly straight lines from point to point, in their power to ionise air or other gas, to affect the photographic plate and to cause certain minerals to emit fluorescent light. Yet an essential identity in their nature seemed to be excluded by reason the failure of all attempts to reflect them from the surface of a mirror or to bend their path by passing though a prism.


Even the possession of a wave‑like character was put strongly in doubt by the apparent absence of two effects which are common to all kinds of waves, viz., the "interference" of one beam with another identical beam to produce a partial nullification, and the power of all waves to bend in some degree around an obstacle placed in their path, known as "diffraction". On the other hand, if a corpuscular character were attributed to them, their pursuance of a straight path, undeviated by the influence of the strongest electric or magnetic fields, showed that they carry no electric charge, whether positive like alpha‑rays, or negative like the beta.


Since in all the above respects ‑ save only in far higher powers of penetration ‑ the gamma rays of radioactive substances were identical, they too, were taken to be X‑rays. The view generally held as to the nature of X‑rays when Bragg commenced his researches was the "ether‑pulse" theory proposed by Sir George Stokes, Lucasian professor of mathematics in the University of Cambridge. According to this, the violent impact of the cathode rays on a solid object would result in an electrical wave‑pulse, much as the impact of a bullet on a target gives rise to a short sharp pulse of sound. Such a pulse, it was argued, would not possess the ability of a train of waves to exhibit interference or diffraction effects, nor to undergo reflection or refraction, but would still travel in straight lines with the speed of light and, it was claimed, possess the power to eject electrons from atoms on which it impinged.


It was in this last claim, especially, that Bragg from the first suspected a weakness which he set out to test by a series of experiments.


The experience gained in his work on alpha‑rays stood him in good stead, for although there was no question of identity between these and X‑rays, the same method of observation, namely measurement of ionisation produced by the rays in a gas, was applicable to both, and the essential equipment for such observation was ready to hand.


Also, Bragg was again fortunate in securing the valuable assistance of a capable collaborator in the person of John Madsen, a Sydney graduate who had been appointed to take charge of classes in electrical engineering under Bragg. Their experiments were directed towards the elucidation of the relations between the gamma‑rays and the properties of the electrons ejected by them from atom on which they impinged. Reports of similar experiments made on X‑rays by European experiments were already available in scientific literature.


The experimental evidence obtained by Bragg and Madsen confirmed Bragg in his doubts respecting the validity of the ether‑pulse theory. It pointed with



strong probability to a close equality of the energy of the ejected electrons with that of the gamma‑rays which expelled them, and to a continuance of their motion in the same direction of travel, hence, Bragg argued, to a direct transference of the energy of the one ray to the other. Such a transfer of energy is easily understood on a corpuscular theory of X‑rays ‑ requiring nothing more to explain it than the mechanical laws of colliding bodies ‑ but extremely difficult ‑to reconcile with any theory of an ever‑expanding wave which, obviously, must disperse its energy over a wider and wider surface as it travels on, whereas the speed of ejection of electrons was found to be the same whatever the distance of the sheet of metal from the radium emitting the gamma‑rays. Neither, as his experiments proved, did the nature of the metal, whether aluminium, or copper, for example, affect this speed in the least, a sufficient proof that the energy of the electrons was derived from that of the gamma‑rays alone and not from a store of energy within atoms through which they passed.


Bragg clearly realised the need for explaining the enormous differences in penetrating power of the gamma and the beta‑rays, and the indifference of X‑rays to the action of electric or magnetic forces. His explanation was simple, and in the existing state of knowledge, highly plausible.


It was based upon what he termed the conception of a "neutral pair". When a high‑speed negatively charged electron penetrated an atom, it was assumed that it could pick up from the atom another particle charged with an equal amount of positive electricity which would, of course, neutralise its own negative charge, thus becoming electrically neutral and consequently relatively immune to the influence of both electrical and magnetic fields whether within atoms or without.


By the converse process, just as easy to imagine, of losing this positive partner in penetrating another atom, it would be possible for the X‑ray to be reconverted to an electron, which on the assumption of negligible mass in the positive particle removed, would possess the same or nearly the same energy and speed as the original electron which created the X‑ray.


Another consequence of the neutral‑pair theory, on which Bragg laid stress was, as he believed, confirmed in the indirect nude of ionisation by X‑rays. Naturally, if, due to the neutral character of an X‑ray and consequent lack or weakness of its external field of force, at atom can exert little or no influence upon a ray passing through it, the X‑ray in turn would exert little or no effect upon the atom.


Only when ‑the positive part had become detached and the ray reconverted to a moving electron would its disruptive power come into play. Hence ionisation and the production of cathode‑rays from X‑rays must go hand‑in‑hand. This deduction is certainly well verified in the case of the most penetrating X‑rays and all the better, of course, in that of gamma‑rays whose properties ‑ and especially their penetrating power ‑ correspond to X‑rays produced by several million volts.


But with the extension in range of penetrating power to include very "soft" X‑rays, this argument loses all validity and the behaviour of X‑rays is seen to fall into line with a general principle governing the exchange of energy between rays and atoms, illustrated also in the fact, already cited, that the ionising power of alpha‑rays is at its maximum just at the end of their path.


Bragg's ingenious neutral‑pair theory did not pass unchallenged.




Dr. Charles Barkla of Liverpool attacked it in the columns of "Nature", citing in refutation many experimental observations made bry himself on the behaviour of X‑rays, and claiming these as being entirely consistent with the ether‑pulse theory and inconsistent with a corpuscular.


Bragg replied with equal vigour, stressing, naturally, the results on gamma‑rays obtained in the Adelaide experiments.


Since future developments have shown that both theories are untenable it does not seem worthwhile today to assess the merits and demerits of the case either for the prosecution or the defence, but it is satisfactory to be able to report that both disputants have been subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize for their Aork in the very f ield on which they fought and that the award to one, at least, was in part due to the confirmation of his discoveries by the other.


In January, 1909, the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science met it Brisbane and Bragg was its President. He chose as the title of his Presidential Address: "The Lessons of Radioactivity" and in it he gave a masterly and eloquent exposition of the state of knowledge in this new branch of science at that time. In evidence of his possession of a power of poetic imagination, I will quote one passage from this fine address verbatim. After emphasising the independence of radioactivity of all physical conditions, he goes on to say: "It is clear that we are dealing (in radioactivity) with the most fundamental characteristics of atoms, with the building material and not with the structure; with the inner nature of the atom and not its outside, and it is this which differentiates radioactivity from the older sciences. You will remember how Jules Verne in one of his bold flights of imagination drives the submarine boat far down into the depths of the sea. The unrest of the surface, its winds and its waves, are soon left behind; the boat passes through the teeming life below, down into the regions where only a few strange and lonely creatures can stand the enormous pressure, and driving still further, reaches at last black depths, where there is a vast and awful simplicity. Here 'where no man hath come since the making of the world' the silent crew gaze upon the huge cliffs which are the buttresses of the continents above. It is with the same feeling of awe that we examine the fundamental facts and lessons of the new science."


It was inevitable, as Andrade says, that with his reputation as a physicist of the first rank now established, Bragg should receive offers from other centres of learning. An of fer in 1906 to become the f irst Professor of Theoretical Physics in McGill University ‑ one may suspect a Rutherfordian influence in this ‑ was nipped in the bud by a f ire which destroyed a great part of the University and upset its finances. But in 1908 came a second call to the Cavendish Professorship of Physics in the University of Leeds.


Bragg, eager to prosecute his research work with better facilities than were available to him in Adelaide ‑ he told his colleague Mitchell that he anticipated that chemical analyses which took months to complete in Adelaide would be done in less weeks in Leeds ‑ accepted, and left Adelaide with his family for England in February of the year 1909.


They travelled on the ill‑fated ship "Waratah" ‑ it was the return trip of her first voyage. On her second the "Waratah" disappeared without leaving a trace between Ourban and Cape Town.


In a letter which Bragg had written to a friend (Sir Charles Todd) in Adelaide after arriving in England, he expressed very grave concern regarding the sea‑worthiness of the ship, based in all probability, on the long time which was taken in recovering from a roll. It is a general principle of oscillatory motion




of all kinds that such a slow recovery ‑ in technical terms, a long period of oscillation ‑ is an indication of an approach to instability. At the official enquiry into the loss of the "Waratah" the evidence to this effect given by Bragg helped to elucidate the cause of the disaster.


During the first two years of his stay at Leeds his published scientific papers dealt mainly with the same problem of the relation of X‑rays to the secondary electrons ejected by them, or the converse effect.


No doubt the process of settling in with the work of preparing new courses of lectures, new practical courses, perhaps certain unexpected frustrations, limited the amount of time and energy available for taking up researches in new fields.


The situation in regard to the nature of X‑rays ‑ whether corpuscular or undulatory ‑ seemed to have reached a deadlock.


Bragg's "neutral pair" ‑ a forecast of the actual "neutron" now known to exist ‑ was satisfactory as an explanation of the extraordinary power of the rays to penetrate matter ‑ far exceeded indeed by that of the real neutron ‑ and, as Bragg was the first to maintain, of their inability to ionise gases directly and only by mans of the secondary electrons they create. Cn the other hand, the electro‑magnetic wave or pulse‑theory offered a more plausible explanation of the polarisation of the rays which, precisely as with light‑waves, took place when the rays were scattered from matter through which they passed. An experimental proof that their velocity was identical with that of light would have been decisive for the wave‑theory, but the claim made by a German scientist to have proved this equality was rejected by Bragg as unwarranted. The crucial tests for a wave‑character, as already remarked, lie in the effects known as "diffraction" and "interference". The situation was, in fact, a striking parallel to that which existed in regard to the nature of light in the time of Newton, 300 years ago.


Newton upheld the corpuscular view of the ancient Greeks on the very same grounds as Bragg for X‑rays, namely the sharpness of their shadows and lack of evidence as to their capacity for interference or diffraction. His Dutch contemporary, Huyghens, on the other hand, espoused the wave‑theory.


Only after Thomas Young in England and Fresnel in France had devised experiments which convincingly demonstrated the existence of these effects was the corpuscular theory abandoned in favour of a wave‑theory.


Subsequent refinements and elaborations of such experiments has built up a vast body of precise information concerning light‑waves and their properties and led to extensions of the realm of optics to include both waves too long and waves too short to affect the sense of sight ‑ the "infra‑red" and "ultra‑violet" regions.


It was, at least, a reasonable ty‑pothesis that waves of the same (electro­magnetic) nature might exist of still shorter wave‑length than the shortest known ultra‑violet.


On the other hand, even to convinced adherents of the wuve‑theory of X­rays, there seemed to be no prospect of determining the wave‑lengths or obtaining a spectrum of the waves by means of an interference or diffraction effect, since estimates based on Stokes pulse‑theory and on the failure of all experiments to find such an effect indicated a value of the weve‑length 1000 times less than that of light. Thus, 17 years after the date of nontgen's discovery the true




nature of the rays remained undecided. But in 1912 a discovery was made which not only solved this mystery but inaugurated a new era in the Department of Physics of the University of Munich, in this branch of science when Max von Laue, a Privat‑dozent was inpsired by a brilliant idea.




Laue's special interest had been in the electromagnetic wave‑theory of light. He had been entrusted with the task of writing an article on wave‑optics for the Encyclopaedia of mathematical Science and in doing so had devoted special attention to the theory of the diffraction‑grating. He was also well acquainted with the space‑lattice theory of crystal ‑structure, a theory which explains the geometrical characteristics of crystal‑form in terms of the arrangement of its atoms or molecules in a pattern which repeats itself throughout the whole volume of the crystal. Thus in a crystal of the cubic or regular system the elementary unit of pattern might take the form of a cube with an atom at each corner, a repetition of which in all directions could result in a crystal having its faces perpendicular to the edges of the cube. Assuming such a structure a simple calculation based upon a knowledge of the density of any crystalline solid and the weight of its molecules gives the average spacing of these as something of the order of one hundred millionth of a centimetre.


Now, although Pontgen himself and others after him had failed to obtain conclusive evidence of the diffraction of X‑rays (e.g., in spreading out as light does after passage through a fine slit) yet others believed that photographs of a narrow beam of rays passing through a fine slit did indicate such diffraction. This was strongly confirmed when Koch of Munich devised a photometer which far surpassed the human eye in its resolving power. His measurements on photographs such as that just mentioned indicated a wave‑length of one thousand millionth of a centimetre, that is about one‑tenth of the spacing of the atoms in a crystal, a relationship comparable to that existing between wave‑lengths of light in the visible range and the spacing of lines on a diffraction‑grating.


To Privat‑dozent Laue, equipped with these elements of knowledge basic to a solution of the problem but as yet held in separate compartments of his mind, there came one evening a student, P.P. Ewald, seeking assistance in his endeavours to solve a problem in wave‑propagation concerned with the effect of a three‑dimensional space‑lattice on electromagnetic waves passing through it.


Laue confesses that he was unable to help Ewald to solve his problem. But the discussion effected the necessary conjunction of hitherto separated conceptions. He says "The idea came to me to put the question: how would waves behave which are short in comparison with the spacings (of atoms) in a space­lattice? My optical sense furnished an immediate answer. Diffraction spectra must result." Despite adverse comment by his seniors on the staff he obtained permission to put this opinion to the test of experiment. Two young assistants were employed to set up a simple arrangement for this purpose. A fine pencil of X‑rarys, limited by passage through pin‑holes in lead sheets, traversed a thin plate of a copper‑sulphate crystal and fell upon a photographic plate. After a few failures, due to erroneous placing of the crystal, the anticipated result was obtained. Surrounding the central spot due to the direct ray were several faint replicas which could only be due to diffraction effects. The evidence was conclusive. At one stroke both the wave‑theory of X‑rays and the existence of the crystalline space‑lattice had found convincing confirmation.




Further experiments were then made ‑ all critics silent now ‑ with refinement in the details of the apparatus and on several crystals of a simpler type, including zinc sulphide, which belongs to the regular or cubic system. Beautifully symmetrical patterns of spots were obtained, the position of which on the plate could be correlated with three whole numbers (replacing the single number in the equation connecting wave‑length and direction of diffracted beam in the theory of the one‑dimensional grating) each set specifying a set of atoms in the crystal which collaborated in their scattering effects in a certain direction.


For complete correlation, however, of theory and results, an assumption had to be made as to the nature of the elementary unit of pattern in the space­lattice.


Von Laue's assumption of a cube with an atom at each corner was erroneous and to get even an imperfect agreement between his calculations and actual measurement necessitated an arbitrary restriction of the wave‑length of the rays to certain specific values.


It was at this stage, that William Lawrence Bragg took up the running. He was at that date (1912) a research student in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge and, as he states, "an ardent supporter of my father's views respecting the corpuscular nature of X‑rays." He goes on to say: "During the summer of 1912 we had discussions on the possibility of explaining Laue's pattern (of spots) by some other assumption than that of diffraction of waves, and I actually made some unsuccessful experiments to see if I could get evidence of "X‑ray corpuscles" shooting down the avenues between the rows of atoms in the crystal. On returning to Cambridge to ponder over Laue's paper, however, I became convinced of the correctness of his deduction that the effect was one of wave­diffraction ‑ but also convinced that his analysis of the way it took place was not correct."


He then proceeds to explain how from a certain secondary feature of the photographs (merely, in fact, the change in shape of the spots with position on the photographic plate) he was led to substitute the idea of a reflection of the rays by planes more or less densely packed with atoms for the scattering of waves from individual atoms on which Laue based his explanation. Also, he found it necessary to replace Laue's simple elementary cube by one in which an atom was situated not only at each corner but in the centre of each face (an arrangement which had been proposed on other grounds by Professor Pope of Cambridge).


Repeating now the calculation with the necessary modifications he found complete agreement with the observed pattem and thereby decisive proof of the essential correctness of Laue's theory. (Thus, nobly, do the rival galdiators in the arena of scientific research come to the help of an opponent who stumbles!)


There followed immediately upon his initial success similar solutions of the X‑ray diffraction spectra of several other simple kinds of crystalline salts. The first day of success in the X‑ray method of analysing crystal structure had dawned, to be followed, in perennial succession, by thousands of others.


The younger Bragg, in these initial stages, had also at first regarded the space‑lattice of the crystal as a regular arrangement in space of individual atoms and used the same method of mathematical analysis as Laue to obtain a picture of that arrangement. But what might have seemed to anyone else an unimportant minor feature of the photographs (as already mentioned it was a change in the shape of the diffraction images with increasing distance of the image from the crystal) led him to an alternative and most illuminating




viewpoint. It was to regard the atoms as lying in sets of parallel planes, in analogy to the way in which the vines in a vineyard may be seen as arranged in parallel rows. And just as by changing the direction of observation in the latter case different sets of rows appear in view, so, in a crystal, a multitude of sets of planes, each set packed more or less densely with atoms, intersect it in varied orientation.


When a beam of X‑rays penetrates the crystal a swarm of secondary wavelets starts out f rom each and every atom in an atomic plane each time a wave passes over them the aggregate of these forming a new wave‑front. Alone, such a secondary wave oould be feeble far below the possibility of detection. But if, as may result from a particular relation between the spacing of the planes, the wave‑length and direction of travel of the rays, the reflected waves from successive layers follow one another crest upon crest and trough upon trough ‑ to use a metaphor drawn from water‑waves ‑ then their cumulative effect could well be expected to amount to a reflection comparable in strength to the reflection of light from the most perfect mirror. on this being pointed out to him by the distinguished physicist C.T.R. Wilson (inventor of the fog‑chamber method of detecting tracks of alpha and other oorpuscular rays) Bragg (jnr.) immediately made the experiment of directing a pencil of X‑rays on to a thin sheet of mica and placing a photographic plate in a position to receive both incident and reflected ray.


When the angle of incidence was rightly adjusted, an exposure of a few minutes only sufficed to show the existence of the predicted effect whereas to obtain Laue diffraction‑pictures of comparable intensity an exposure of several hours was required. Here, then, was obviously a new and powerful tool of X‑ray analysis, and one moreover which could be made to serve a double purpose. Firstly, from the relation between wave‑length and direction of travel of the waves and spacing of planes, a knowledge of wave‑length would enable a determination of the spacing; secondly, if the spacing is known it is only necessary to measure the angle at which reflection occurs to find the wavelength.*


The elder Bragg (to whose work on X‑rays after this long digression we now return) immediately reoognised the truth and appreciated the possibilities revealed by Laue's discovery and his own son's interpretation of it, without, however, wholly renouncing his previous arguments in favour of a corpuscular theory. His acceptance of the wave‑theory was hailed by Arnold Sommerfield in these wards, written in 1913 in the course of an appreciation of Laue's discovery: "One particularly admirable success of these crystal diffraction photographs is the service they have done in convincing the most renown adherent of a corpuscular theory ‑ W.H. Bragg ‑ and bringing him over into the camp of the followers of the wave‑theory."


It was true that Bragg, confronted with the compelling evidence of these new phenomena, could not but accept the wave‑theory. But, as remarked above, he did so with a reservation. In November of 1912 he expressed his views on the matter as follows: "Dr. Tutton suggests that the new experiment may possibly distinguish between the wave and the corpuscular theories of the X‑rays. This is no doubt true in one sense. If the experiment helps to prove X‑rays and light to be of the same nature then such a theory as that of the 'neutral pair' is


*The relationship of the spacing of the atomic planes in the crystal to the wave­length of the X‑rays and the angle at which they impinge on the planes is expressible by a simple equation known as "Bragg's Law".



quite inadequate to bear the burden of explaining the facts of all radiation. On the other hand, the properties of X‑rays point clearly to a corpuscular theory and certain properties of light can be similarly interpreted. The problem then becomes, it seems to me, not to decide between the two theories of X‑rays but to find, as I have said elsewhere, one theory which possesses the capacity of both."


Here Bragg enunciates clearly the outstanding paradox of modern physics, the possession by the same physical entity of two apparently irreconcilable characters: wave and corpuscle. It would seem probable that he was not fully aware of the developments which had been taking place in Germany ‑ paralleling his own independent line of thought ‑ following upon the discovery in 1900 of the discontinuous nature of temperature‑radiation by Planck, and particularly of Einstein's attribution of a corpuscular aspect to ordinary light ‑ shared with its wave‑character ‑ according to which the frequency of the waves fixes the energy of the corpuscles, and which have culminated in the mathematical theory of wave‑mechanics. Be that as it may, he immediately appreciated and prepared at once to apply the reflection of X‑rays by crystals in experimental investi­gations. His interest at the outset ‑ as Sir Lawrence has informed me ‑ was directed, not so much towards the determination of crystal structure ‑ which perhaps he regarded as his son's pre‑emptive right ‑ but to the reciprocal problem of defining the quality of X‑rays in terms not, as formerly, by their power to penetrate or to be absorbed by matter but of their wave‑characteristics, namely, wave‑length or frequency and intensity.


To this end he devised a beautiful instrument, the X‑ray spectrometer (the counterpart of the optical spectrometer used in the analysis of light in the visible, infra‑red or ultra‑violet regions) which can be employed to weasure not only wave‑lengths like the optical instrument but also intensity of X‑ray beam. The manner of using it is as follows: A beam of the radiation to be examined is defined in direction by passage through narrow slits in sheet‑metal, falls then upon a plate of a perfect crystal ‑ rock salt, calcite or other ‑ which can be rotated in such a way as to throw a reflected beam into an ionisation chamber. The angle made by the atomic reflecting planes in the crystal with the incident beam then gives the wave‑length; the value of the ionisation current the intensity.


Sir Lawrence Bragg writes about this instrument as follows:‑


"The X‑ray spectrometer opened up a new world. It proved to be a far more powerful mthod of analysing crystal structure than the Laue photographs which I had used. One could examine the various faces of the crystal in succession and by noting the angles at which and the intensity with which they reflected the X­rays one could deduce the way in which the atom were arranged in sheets parallel to these faces. The intersections of these sheets pinned down the positions of the atoms in space. On the other hand, a suitable crystal face could be used to determine the wave‑lengths of the characteristic X‑rays coming from different elements as sources. A 'pure' beam of monochromatic X‑rays could be selected by reflection from a crystal and its absorption in various substances measured. It was like discovering an alluvial gold field with nuggets lying all around waiting to be picked up. At this stage my father and I joined forces and worked furiously all through the summer of 1913 using the X‑ray spectrometer. Although the description of this instrument was published in our joint names, I had no share in its design.


"The capital I brought to the family firm was my conception of reflection and the application in general of the optical principles of diffraction and my success in analysing the first crystals by the Laue method.




It was a glorious time when we worked far into every night with new worlds unfolding before us in the silent laboratory. My father was at first far more interested, in X‑rays than in crystals, and left the determination of crystal structure to me with the exception of a paper on diamonds which showed the power of the instrument he had devised. He measured the wave‑lengths of the X‑ray spectra given by the elements, platinum, osmium, radium, palladium, rhodium, copper and nickel. He identified them with Barkla's K and L radiations."


Moseley's famous experiment of a year later in which he determined the wave‑lengths of the X‑rays characteristic of a series of chemical elements was a direct extension of these earlier experiments of W.H. Bragg, the main difference in his technique being the substitution of a photographic plate for the ionisation chamber. The elder Bragg's one incursion into crystal analysis ‑which his son was pursuing concurrently with equal vigour and success ‑ solved the problem of the arrangement of atoms in the diamond, a crystal, it need hardly be said, unique in many of its physical and optical properties. The dimension of the unit cell of its space‑lattice ‑ built up of tetrahedra with a carbon atom at each corner of each tetrahedron and one at the centre ‑ is defined by one single length, viz., the distance from every carbon atom to anyone of its four neighbours. This distance is 1.54 Angstrom units.


It is not difficult to appreciate how the remarkable properties of diamond ‑ its extreme hardness and elasticity, its infusibility and insolubility (which have, up to now, frustrated attempts to make artificial diamonds) its high refracting power for light, find a physical basis in such a structure. The tetrahedral character assigned by chemists to the carbon atom which is one of the key‑stones of structural organic chemistry is visibly apparent in this model. Another feature, oomiion to carbon compounds of the aromatic class, of which benzene is the simplest exemplar (equally put in evidence in this crystal model) is the existence of a linked meshwork of rings in each of which the atoms lie alternately either slightly above or slightly below a median plan.


The other crystalline form of pure carbon known as graphite differs most remarkably from diamond in many ways ‑ among others in its opacity to light, and in its power of conducting electricity like a metal. The explanation of this difference is to be seen it is space‑lattice in which the benzene‑ring layers are now separated much more widely, so that rigidity, as between them, is lost and the crystal flakes easily along these layers, behaviour which explains well its property as a lubricant.




This period of intense and fruitful co‑operation of father and son was interrupted by the outbreak of the first World War.


To combat enemy submarine attacks on British shipping, the Admiralty had created a Board of Invention and Research for the purpose of obtaining scientific advice on mthods which might be devised for countering this menace. Bragg, an original member of this Board, was appointed "Director of Research on methods of detecting underwater sound," the objective being to locate enemy submarines either by the self‑emitted sound of its screw‑propeller or engines or (as proved to be far more effective) by the echo from the hull of the submarine of a pulse of sound‑waves generated by some form of transmitter carried on a destroyer.


(Water, even when so turbid that a beam of light is transmitted only a few feet, is an excellent medium for sound‑propagation.)




Experimental work was carried on, in the f irst place at a naval base on the Firth of Fbrth; afterwards, when this proved unsatisfactory, at Harwich. Ernest Rutherford was also an active collaborator in this work.


A small team of physicists and technicians worked under Bragg's direction on the problems of devising sound generators for creating an intense bean of high‑frequency sound waves on the one hand and receivers suitable for detecting the echo reflected from the hull of the submarine, on the other.


For the former, a modified form of the piezo‑electric vibrator devised by Professor Langevin of Paris, was employed; for the latter, underwater microphones or hydrophones. Success was finally achieved in constructing these in such a way as to indicate nor merely the arrival of the underwater sound from a distant source but in indicating the direction from which it came.


While Bragg the father was engaged on this work, Bragg the son was employed upon the parallel problem of locating the position of the eneny's heavy guns by somewhat similar mans, namely the precise times of arrival of the sound­wave which accompanied the firing of the gun at several different stations behind the British lines. Here again, a special type of microphone (Tucker hot‑wire microphone) was devised which discriminated in favour of the explosive wave arriving from the distant gun as against local noises.


During his stay at Lees a tempting offer had come to Bragg in the form of an invitation to become the Principal of the new University of British Columbia. In some uncertainty of mind as to whether or not he should accept, he sought the advice of his friend Rutherford.


Rutherford's reply to the inquiry is so characteristic of his outlook that I quote a couple of sentences. "I think," he says, "that if I were tired of physical work (does he not mean 'work in physics'?) and had not an idea left to work on, I should consider it an admirable position to occupy one's declining years, but I quite agree with you that it would be very difficult to leave the Physical ;‑brld (world of research in physics?) at such an interesting time when there is so much to do and so many interesting problems in sight."


With such a hint that, in Rutherford's opinion, administrative jobs are suitable occupations for scientific men only when approaching senility or when vacuity in ideas renders them incapable of further productive work it is not surprising that Bragg declined the position.


But, when in 1915 he was invited to become Quain professor of physics in University College of London University, he accepted, and as soon as release from war‑service cam with the ending of the war, resumed his work on crystal analysis. Many other physicists and crystallographers, both in England and elsewhere, impressed with the power of this new weapon ‑ so conclusively demonstrated by the Braggs ‑ began to make use of it in the same f ield of research.


Many modifications in the method of crystal analysis and many extensions of its application, resulted from their work. of these, the most important was due to Bragg himself, when in 1924 he showed that by making a bold yet plausible assumption the principles and technique of the X‑ray analysis of crystal structure could be applied to the determining of the structure, not only of inorganic but also of organic crystals ‑ or, at least, of that large class known as aromatic compounds.




The assumption is that the group of six carbon atoms linked together to form a hexagon known as the "benzene‑ring" (benzene itself consisting of such a ring plus six hydrogen atoms) may be regarded as a physical ent1ty of definite size and form irrespective of the crystal in which it occurs. Thus naphthalene is to be looked upon not as a molecule containing 10 carbon and eight hydrogen atoms but as two benzene rings having one side ‑ or two carbon atoms ‑ in common. Bragg demonstrated the value of this hypothesis by the experimental determination of the form and dimensions of the unit‑cell, the infinite repetition of which builds up the crystal ‑ of a number of benzene and naphthalene derivatives and it has since been successfully applied by others to compounds of such extreme complexity as the proteins.




The Royal Institution of Great Britain, most famous of all scientific foundations, of which it has been well said "that it combines the characteristics of an academy, a college, a research institution and a club" was founded in the year 1799 by that extraordinary individual Count Rumford (born plain Benjamin Thompson, at the little town of Rumford, in the State of Massachusetts).


Exiled from his native land because of his active partisanship of the British cause in the American War of Independence, knighted by King George III for his services in military administration, created a Count of the Holy Roman Empire by Karl Theodor, Elector of the State of Bavaria, in recognisition of the social and military reforms which he effected; soldier, administrator, scientist, inventor and social reformer; Rumford founded the Institution "for the promotion of science and the diffusion and extension of useful knowledge."


Well has it served those worthy aims. From within its laboratories in Albermarle Street, Piccadilly, under the direction of a succession of famous scientists, there has come a succession of famous discoveries. In its lecture­theatre these same men and many others of scientific fame have expounded the most recent advances in their special field of knowledge.


Its first director, Humphrey Davy ‑ famous for adding sodium, potassium, chlorine and iodine to the list of chemical elements and for his invention of the miner's saftey‑lamp ‑ by his enthusiasm and eloquence, drew to his audience not only the few engaged in serious scientific pursuits, but also the many to whom is discosurse merely offered intellectual entertainment. His successor, Michael Faraday, greatest of experimental scientists, rose to that dignity and fame from the humble level of Davy's laboratory assistant; as an expositor of science he rivalled his former master.


Daring Faraday's regime the finances of the Institution, hitherto always precarious, were greatly improved by a benefaction by John Fuller, a wealthy ‑and, it is said eccentric ‑ Member of Parliament. This enabled the managers to create two "Fullerian" Professorships, one in Chemistry, the other in Physiology; to these a third, in Natural Philosophy was subsequently added. Faraday was the first "Fullerian" Professor of Chemistry.


John Tyndall, who followed Faraday, made important contributions to our knowledge of Radiant Heat, of Light and of Sound. He, like his predecessors, combined the faculty of speaking well with that of writing well. His books on Sound, Light and Heat still repay reading by students of Physics.






Next in succession came Sir James Dewar, well‑known for his success in liquefying hydrogen gas for the first time and for invention of the Dewar vacuum flask, better known by its commercial title of "Thermos". Dewar died in 1923 after holding office for 46 years.


The task of choosing a successor was probably not a difficult one. Bragg was clearly marked as the right man. He had all the essential qualities demanded of the occupant of this distinguished office in full measure: the ability to originate, prosecute or direct fundamental research; the gift of simple yet inspiring oratory; a personality richly endowed with dignity of bearing, sincerity of speech and charm of manner.


He was elected to the combined offices of Director of the Royal Institution, Resident Professor and Fullerian Professor of Chemistry. To these was added a new responsibility ‑ Director of the Davy‑Faraday Research Laboratories, the construction, equipment and maintenance of which was made possible by an endowment which the Institution received from Dr. Wdwig Mond. This fund also permits the financing of a limited number of independent research workers.


Bragg brought with him for inclusion in this band of coworkers, two members of his University College staff, Messrs. Muller and Shearer, both already experienced in the technique of X‑ray crystal analysis. These two, especially, gave valuable assistance in the design and construction of new and more powerful equipment, which included, for example, two high‑power X‑ray generating tubes, one of 5 k.w., the other of 50 k.w.


These and other improvements permitted a reduction in the time required for the observations to a fraction of what it had previously been.


An active school of research in X‑ray crystal analysis soon came into being. In its members are included such well‑known names in British science as J.D. Bernal, W.T. Astbury, Kathleen Lonsdale, and many others who have made important contributions to this new branch of science.


While the steady flow of publications describing the results of these researches amply fulfilled the primary purpose of Count Rumford's foundation, the "promotion of science", it did not supplant or prevent the fulfilment of its secondary objective, "the diffusion and extension of knowledge." Increase in membership and in the numbers attending lectures necessitated extensive alterations and additions to the Lecture Theatre, Library and reading room of the Institution. The Friday evening discourses initiated in Faraday's time received fresh accession of popularity largely because of the attraction exerted by Bragg's own lectures and demonstrations.


when conversaziones were held, to which large numbers were invited, lady Bragg was, as formerly in Adelaide days, an active assistant to her husband in explaining exhibits and experiments to visitors.


on this wifely occupation her sister (Miss Todd, makes the following comment: "He and I would listed with great enjoyment to my sister explaining experiments to her friends and he would smile at me with delight and understanding." I once said to her, "How can you dare to do this, especially with Will listening, when you really don't know a thing about it?" "Well, darling," she would reply, "they understand what I tell them far better than when will explains."






Next in succession came Sir James Dewar, well‑known for his success in liquefying hydrogen gas for the first time and for invention of the Dewar vacuum flask, better known by its commercial title of "Thermos". Dewar died in 1923 after holding office for 46 years.


The task of choosing a successor was probably not a difficult one. Bragg was clearly marked as the right man. He had all the essential qualities demanded of the occupant of this distinguished office in full measure: the ability to originate, prosecute or direct fundamental research; the gift of simple yet inspiring oratory; a personality richly endowed with dignity of bearing, sincerity of speech and charm of manner.


He was elected to the combined offices of Director of the Royal Institution, Resident Professor and Fullerian Professor of Chemistry. To these was added a new responsibility ‑ Director of the Davy‑Faraday Research Laboratories, the construction, equipment and maintenance of which was made possible by an endowment which the Institution received from Dr. Ludwig Mond. This fund also permits the financing of a limited number of independent research workers.


Bragg brought with him for inclusion in this band of coworkers, two members of his University College staff, Messrs. Muller and Shearer, both already experienced in the technique of X‑ray crystal analysis. These two, especially, gave valuable assistance in the design and construction of new and more powerful equipment, which included, for example, two high‑power X‑ray generating tubes, one of 5 k.w., the other of 50 k.w.


These and other improvements permitted a reduction in the time required for the observations to a fraction of what it had previously been.


An active school of research in X‑ray crystal analysis soon came into being. In its members are included such well‑known names in British science as J.D. Bernal, W.T. Astbury, Kathleen Lonsdale, and many others who have made important contributions to this new branch of science.


While the steady flow of publications describing the results of these researches amply fulfilled the primary purpose of Count Rumford's foundation, the "promotion of science", it did not supplant or prevent the fulfillment of its secondary objective, "the diffusion and extension of knowledge." Increase in membership and in the numbers attending lectures necessitated extensive alterations and additions to the Lecture Theatre, Library and reading room of the Institution. The Friday evening discourses initiated in Faraday's time received fresh accession of popularity largely because of the attraction exerted by Bragg's own lectures and demonstrations.


when conversaziones were held, to which large numbers were invited, lady Bragg was, as formerly in Adelaide days, an active assistant to her husband in explaining exhibits and experiments to visitors.


On this wifely occupation her sister (Miss Todd, makes the following comment: "He and I would listed with great enjoyment to my sister explaining experiments to her friends and he would smile at me with delight and understanding." I once said to her, "How can you dare to do this, especially with Will listening, when you really don't know a thing about it?" "Well, darling," she would reply, "they understand what I tell them far better than when will explains."




This very human gift for entertaining and interesting people was a great help to my brother‑in‑law all through his career. They were a much‑loved pair in the university town of Leeds and, when at the Royal Institution in London, my sister made an excellent hostess. She still, at the Friday night receptions, would explain the experiments, and I used to think that the more inexact she was, the more the group round her would enjoy themselves."


Bragg's first successful course of "Christmas Lectures to Children" in the 'World of Sound" was followed by several others: "Old Trades and New Knowledge" ‑ designed to demonstrate "the way in which new knowledge is continually changing the old crafts"; "Concerning the Nature of Things" (a modern version of "De rerum Natural' written by the Roman poet Sureties 2000 years ago, devoted not to his object of "freeing mankind from fear of the supernatural" but merely to an explanation of their physical properties in terms of their atomic structure; and the "Universe of Light," the theme and scope of which is well indicated in its opening sentence "Light brings us news of the Universe."


When the Second World War broke out in 1939, Bragg at the age of 76, was not too old to serve the nation as Chairman of the Advisory Committee to the British Government on Food Policy.


A letter which he wrote to the London Times shows no diminution of his power of clear and vigorous expression. His last public activity would appear to have been the organisation of a series of broadcasts by the British Broadcasting Corporation in collaboration with the Science Committee of the British Council ‑of which Bragg was Chairman ‑ entitled "Science lifts the veil". I quote from the preface to the published edition of these tasks:‑


"The late Sir William Bragg .. was deeply interested in the series. He believed enthusiastically in the great role that broadcasting must have in the stimulation of public interest in and the understanding of science. He proposed the theme for the series, sketched the topics and gave the opening talk himself . He introduced ten of the speakers, including his own son, Sir Lawrence Bragg, and his last public words were spoken in his discussion with Professor J.D. Bernal on 'The Problem of the origin of Life.'"


This most interesting discussion is too long to quote in its entirety. But in order to put these last words spoken by Bragg in public on record here, as well as for their intrinsic interest, I reproduce the last few questions asked and the answers given.


The discussion has turned upon the structure of protein molecules ‑ a problem Bernal had been foremost in attacking by the method of X‑ray analysis ‑and especially of the nature of a virus, probably the lowest thing to which the quality of life can be assigned.


Bragg asks: But if one protein or virus must always come from another how did the first one get there? How did it all start?


Bernal answers: That's what we have to find out. One big step towards it is getting the structure of virus and protein molecules. it's really the problem of the original life.


Bragg: That is just it. What do you mean by life? All the time you have been talking of a virus as alive at one moment and being a crystal at another. How can that be?


(It is now Bernal’s turn to put the question) . He asks: Well! What do




This very human gift for entertaining and interesting people was a great help to my brother‑in‑law all through his career. They were a much‑loved pair in the university town of Leeds and, when at the Royal Institution in London, my sister made an excellent hostess. She still, at the Friday night receptions, would explain the experiments, and I used to think that the more inexact she was, the more the group round her would enjoy themselves."


Bragg's first successful course of "Christmas Lectures to Children" in the 'World of Sound" was followed by several others: "Old Trades and New Knowledge" ‑ designed to demonstrate "the way in which new knowledge is continually changing the old crafts"; "Concerning the Nature of Things" (a modern version of "De rerum Natural' written by the Roman poet Lucretius 2000 years ago, devoted not to his object of "freeing mankind from fear of the supernatural" but merely to an explanation of their physical properties in terms of their atomic structure; and the "Universe of Light," the theme and scope of which is well indicated in its opening sentence "Light brings us news of the Universe."


When the Second World War broke out in 1939, Bragg at the age of 76, was not too old to serve the nation as Chairman of the Advisory Committee to the British Government on Food Policy.


A letter which he wrote to the London Times shows no diminution of his power of clear and vigorous expression. His last public activity would appear to have been the organisation of a series of broadcasts by the British Broadcasting Corporation in collaboration with the Science Committee of the British Council ‑of which Bragg was Chairman ‑ entitled "Science lifts the veil". I quote from the preface to the published edition of these tasks:‑


"The late Sir William Bragg .. was deeply interested in the series. He believed enthusiastically in the great role that broadcasting must have in the stimulation of public interest in and the understanding of science. He proposed the theme for the series, sketched the topics and gave the opening talk himself . He introduced ten of the speakers, including his own son, Sir Lawrence Bragg, and his last public words were spoken in his discussion with Professor J.D. Bernal on 'The Problem of the origin of Life.'"


This most interesting discussion is too long to quote in its entirety. But in order to put these last words spoken by Bragg in public on record here, as well as for their intrinsic interest, I reproduce the last few questions asked and the answers given.


The discussion has turned upon the structure of protein molecules ‑ a problem Bernal had been foremost in attacking by the method of X‑ray analysis ‑and especially of the nature of a virus, probably the lowest thing to which the quality of life can be assigned.


Bragg asks: But if one protein or virus must always come from another how did the first one get there? How did it all start?


Bernal answers: That's what we have to find out. One big step towards it is getting the structure of virus and protein molecules. it's really the problem of the original life.


Bragg: That is just it. What do you mean by life? All the time you have been talking of a virus as alive at one moment and being a crystal at another. How can that be?


(It is now Bernal Is turn to put the question) . He asks: Well! What do




you mean by "life"?


Bragg replies: When I was young it seemed quite simple. A thing was alive if it moved and grew and reproduced its like. Crystals did not move or reproduce. They did grow; not like a living thing by taking outside materials into themselves but simply by adding more on the outside like piling stones on a pyramid. Now your viruses don't move. They can't grow by taking material inside themselves because they have not got any insides, but they do seem to reproduce. Are they alive or (are they) not?


Bernal: I would prefer not to say.


Bragg: Why not?


Bernal: Because my colleague Dr. Pirie who had done so much of his work on viruses and has written a cutting essay on the meaninglessness of the term "life" would never let me hear the end of it.


Bragg: But you must have some idea of your own.


Bernal: I have; but it's no question of definition.




Brief reference has already been made to a painful episode in Bragg's early life due to a revolt of conscience against those clauses in the Apostles creed which condemn all unbelievers to an eternity of existence in everlasting fire. A quotation from his autobiographical notes shows how deeply his mind was shaken in the struggle to free itself from the chains of beliefs, fastened upon him in early childhood. "It really was a terrible year," he says. "For many years the Bible was a repelling book which I shrank from reading."


This early experience lends a special interest to the discussion of his views on religion when matured by experience and based upon his independent judgment.


In 1941 he was invited by the University of Durham to deliver one of the annual Riddell Memorial Lectures ‑ a foundation which honours the memory of the Scottish religious poet, Henry Scott Riddell.


The title he gave to his address was "Science and Faith"; its keynote is an endeavour so to interpret the meanings of these two words as to make compatible one with the other.


Defining "Science" in the first place as a "collection of observables of


Nature" he proceeds to elaborate this definition by pointing out that to make the vast body of knowledge included in it comprehensible, the scientist must "endeavour to find (in it) correlations, rules and laws. He must reduce his observations to order, because he then finds indications of the most hopeful lines of further advance.


"He could not grasp what he has already got unless he did what he could to codify it. He therefore makes hypotheses." (Here, by the way, is apparent contradiction to Newton's much quoted declaration "Hypotheses non fingo".) "But it is to be observed," he goes on to say, "that all such hypotheses are tentative and are to be amended as knowledge grows." He is insistent also that a clear distinction must be made between "science", so defined, and "the applications of
















science" and that the reproaches made against science for the evil uses of some of its applications are misdirected.


Again and again he returns to emphasise the provisional character of scientific hypotheses and takes pains to illustrate this character by reference to the amendment which Einstein made in Newton's Law of Gravitation and to the remarkable alternations which have taken place in our views as to the nature of light.


Seeking now a definition of "Faith" he quotes St. Paul: "Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." But while giving praise to this as "a sentence obviously full of earnestness and meaning" he acknowledges that it may mean different things to different people, for he goes on to say "When we look into the definition we find that we way not take it word for word without stripping it of all meaning." My own interpretation," he adds, "is that St. Paul's faith was a hypothesis so firmly held and trusted that he would and did stake his life upon it. But he is describing a hypothesis which, like any other, exists to be tried by experiment. That need not trouble any follower of the rule of Christ because Christianity is again and again defined as an experimental religion."


we see here that his aim is to justify Faith in the realm of religion on the same ground as he would justify it in the context of science, viz., in justification by results. It is at least a generous attempt to find a basis for the reconciliation of the two great modes of interpreting human thought and existence. But does it not ignore the existence of the deeper philosophical antithesis in their outlook, the scientific seeking always to make a picture of the world from which subjective and anthropomorphic aspects have been eliminated; the religious based on a presumption of intelligibility, meaning and purpose in the world which is relative to man's existence and nature.


Irreconcilably opposed as these view‑points may appear to be ‑ and the history of the conflict of science and religion bears tragic testimony to the violence of human feeling engendered by this antagonism ‑ we can all agree with Bragg that in the community of civilised educated humanity today, there is on either side a trend towards a less dogmatic assertion of doctrines which previously have been held as incontrovertible and absolute.


Bragg relates as an illustration of such a change in dogmatic theology the following experience of his childhood days.


"When I was a very small boy the maid in our house took my cousin and myself one Sunday to a service in the Independent Chapel of our town. We were a Church household and my grandmother, who was in charge of us, was much disturbed. in the evening she set us down to be questioned. She went through the item of the Apostles Creed. Did we believe in the Communion of the Saints? Did we believe in the forgiveness of sins? Did we believe in the Resurrection of the Body? And so on. Quite overawed we meekly answered "yes" to each question in turn. Finally, my grandmother closed the prayer‑book, saying that she thought we must be all right. We had come to no ham."


"Surely '11 is his comment, "such an incident would be far more unusual now."


. Religion," says Professor Andrade in his obituary, "was a strong influence in Bragg's life." In a particular sense of this word like Faith, of marry meanings ‑ the greater Oxford dictionary gives fifteen of the first and six of the second ‑ this is doubtless true. Although Bragg has nowhere to my






knowledge explicitly defined that sense we get some clues to it both from his comments of his early experiences and from other writings or utterances.


In the concluding paragraph of his "World of Sound" he contrasts Religion with Science; :in all our lives, in all we work and strive for it is of first importance to know as much as we can about what we are doing, to learn from the experience of others and, not stopping at that to find out more for ourselves so that our work may be the best of which we are capable. That is what Science stands for. It is only half the battle, I know. There is also the great driving force which we know under the name of religion. From religion comes a man's purpose, from science his power to achieve it. Sometimes people ask if religion and science are not opposed to one another. They are: in the sense that thumb and fingers are opposed to one another. It is an opposition by means of which anything can be grasped."


Here, again, the identification of religion with the motivating agent in human activity is broad enough to include not only the thousand and one "religions" which mankind professes today but a multitude of other spiritual agencies, not usually so classified.


It need not be doubted, however, that Bragg had Christianity chiefly in mind: a Christianity devoid both of theological dogma and of submission to any specific authority of man, church or book ‑ he declined, much though it hurt him to refuse the request of a friend, to read the lessons at the open air services held by the Vicar of Leeds, saying "it would be a vindication in public of something he could not believe because it could not be proved."


As to what is specifically implied in Christianity his own Words are these: "If a man is drawn towards honour and courage and endurance; justice, mercy and charity let him follow the way of Christ and find out for himself that it leads him the way he should go."




The scientific importance of Bragg's work was recognised in the bestowal of many honours and awards by scientific societies and foundations. Election to fellowship of the Royal Society of London followed soon upon his earliest researches on alpha rays and X‑rays; he became a member of its Council in 1911, vice‑president during the years 1920, 1921 and again during 1923, 1924, 1925. He held the Presidency from 1935 to 1940. The Society's Rumford Medal was awarded to him in 1916 for his contributions to the science of radiation, and the Copley Medal in 1930. He was President of the British Association in 1928.


In 19.15 the Nobel prize for Physics ‑ an award of the monetary value of about 110,000 made without respect to nationality, sex, or creed ‑ was shared with his son in recognition of their joint creation of the new sciences of X‑ray spectrometry and crystal analysis.


Knighthood in 1928 came in recognition of his service to the National cause as well as his scientific eminence. The supreme Civil honour of the order of Merit was bestowed in 1931. Concerning this last Miss Todd relates the following incident. A train traveller reading of the award in his morning paper remarked to his companion: "I see that Sir William Bragg has got an O.M." To which the other rejoined: "Oh! Really. Does he drive it himself?"




of many personal tributes paid to him during his life and after his death I will reproduce two only here.


The first is in the form of two elegant verses taken from the dedication of Professor Andrade's little book on "Engines" (the record of a course of Christmas lectures to juveniles at the Royal Institution):


"You by a twofold excellence Raised to deserved eminence Not only Nature can compel Her enigmatic oracle To breathe to you but can convey't Clear to the uninitiate Three times yourself at Christmas tide Have charmed us, as the children's guide In ice and snow's fantastic frond And close compacted diamond Have shown the wonders that abound And wandered through the 'World of Sound And have most curiously displayed How Science guides the hand of Trade."


I quote one other tribute from the distinguished American physicist, Dr. Albert Hull, late Assistant‑Director of the G.E. Co’s. Research Laboratory, and personal friend of the writer. He writes to me as follows:‑


"I am very glad to learn that you are writing the life of Sir William Bragg for whom I have a great affection. Your memory about his lecture in Schenectady is accurate. I recorded it in a paper which I wrote some time ago of which I am enclosing a copy and should be very much pleased to have you quote it or use it in any way you wish. "The reference to Bragg is in a paper by Hull entitled "Outlook for the Physicist in industry'; it runs: 'In 1914 Sir William Bragg came to our laboratory and described in his delightful manner his pioneer work on X‑ray Crystal Analysis. At the end of his lecture I inquired whether he had determined the structure of iron which was of interest for the light it might throw on magnetism. He said 'No, We have tried it but we haven't succeeded.' The next day I began working on X‑ray crystal analysis. To a physicist the statement 'I have tried and failed' is a stronger challenge than any amount of advice. "


Bragg died peacefully after a very short illness on March 12, 1942. Although his physical strength had been declining for some time previously he remained mentally active and sufficiently interested to take part in a discussion on a point relating to the reflection of X‑rays by crystals only a few months before he died.


A Memorial Service held in Westminster Abbey was attended by a great concourse comprising not only personal friends and associates but representatives of the King, Government Departments and all the leading Scientific Societies. The service was conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Dean of Westminster. His body by the wish of the family was interred in the grounds of the Church at the village of Chiddingford in Surrey where he had a country cottage.


Long before he died Bragg's work had won world‑wide renown. He belongs for all time to the company of those whose fame raises them far above all distinctions of nationality, race or creed. Yet perhaps it is still permissible for us in Australia to feel a special pride in the fact that his experimental












genius first bore fruit on Australian soil.


The plea so often urged that our geographical remoteness from the centres of creative science in the older continents of Europe and America is a handicap to young men who aim at a career in scientific research work finds no more support from his judgment than from his performance.


On the contrary ‑ as he once told me ‑ he looked upon his own stay in Australia as a factor in his subsequent success and wished that many other of England's young scientists could enjoy the same advantage.


His first experimental result (that all alpha‑rays coming from the same radioactive element have a definite range) may seem unimportant in comparison with the extensive and important developments which have resulted from the discovery that a crystal reflects X‑rays according to a definite law. Yet it too may be regarded as the starting point of a chain of discoveries culminating in one of portentous significance for the future of mankind.


For it was on this fact that Rutherford was able to discriminate between rays emanating from the radioactove sources and such as resulted from internal atomic energy released by their impact; from this first artificially induced atomic explosion a sequence of others culminated with the discovery of the nuclear fission of uranium, the motive agency in the atomic bomb.


Logically, therefore, the origin of the present international world situation may be followed back to the day when in a small basement‑room of the University of Adelaide, William Henry Bragg first obtained the evidence that rays from radium travelled through air into which they emerged just "thus far and no further."



























by John G. Jenkin


Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia


*Reprinted from


Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 40, No‑1, 1985, pp.75‑99. by courtesy of the Royal Society of London.











Two of the more important figures in 20th century science have been William Henry Bragg (1) and his elder son William Lawrence Bragg (2). Less fully studied and understood are the formative years of W.H. Bragg's academic and research career, which were spent in Australia, where, in addition, W.L. Bragg was born, raised and educated. W.H. Bragg was appointed Elder Professor of Mathematics and Experimental Physics in the University of Adelaide late in 1885; at the age of 23 years and very soon after he graduated from the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos. It may be conceded that such a young man needed time to mature and to learn the ways of the academic world, but nevertheless it seems curious that his first 17 years in Australia should have involved little more than wide social popularity, a passion for golf and painting in water‑colours, 'bicycle tours and picnics during the long lazy summer vacations by the sea' , a flirtation with X‑rays, and generally 'a pleasant and useful life as a popular teacher and good friend in the Adelaide community (3).


In her illuminating and charming portrait of her father, Bragg's only daughter, Mrs. G.M. Caroe, notes three unusual features of her father's life and career, two in the form of questions: ‘Why did he come to research so late?’; the uniqueness of father and son sharing work which brought them a joint Nobel Prize; and 'How did a man so retiring, so completely without personal ambition, become such a public figure?'(4).


Previous assessments of the early Adelaide years invite re‑examination, and are shown in the present essay to be inadequate; the notable features enumerated by Mrs. Caroe deserve further exploration. In addition, the study of Australian science, then largely confined to the three universities at Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, offers additional perspectives on Australian history, on scientific life at the periphery of the English colonial empire, and on the world‑wide impact of Cambridge science. The events surrounding both Horace Lamb's tenure of, and resignation from the Adelaide Mathematics Professorship and W.H. Bragg's succession to the augmented chair, as well as Bragg's exceedingly strenuous first,two years there, all illuminate these themes.




The colony of South Australia was founded late in 1836, when the first boat‑loads of new settlers arrived from England ‑ religious and political dissenters who sought escape from the established religion and class structure of their homeland. It was an agricultural economy from the beginning, but in the 1840s copper was discovered north of Adelaide, and mine owners joined the pastoralists, politicians and businessmen in Adelaide's newly emerging gentry and ruling classes. By the 1870s the transcontinental telegraph line had connected the eastern capitals of Australia, through Adelaide, with Darwin and Europe; Adelaide had 30,000 inhabitants, piped water and gas lighting, and attractive public buildings built from the warm local stone (5).


The University of Adelaide was founded in unusual circumstances. In February 1872 the Baptist, Congregational and Presbyterian Churches decided to establish Union College, primarily to train young men for the Christian ministry. The College soon found it necessary to seek funds to expand its facilities and activities, and the copper magnate Walter Watson Hughes agreed to give £20,000. This princely contribution caused the officers of the College to rethink their plans. In what has been described as 'a splendid act of self‑abnegation' they decided to offer the funds for the establishment of a university. The province was less than forty years old; it was imaginative as well as disinterested to



think in terms of a university for Adelaide (6). Meetings, discussions and negotiations went ahead under a University Association, and after a lengthy parliamentary debate the required legislation received the Governor's assent on 6 November 1874. On the same day the pastoralist Thomas Elder gave a further £20,000. Hughes's deed of gift specified that his money was to be used to endow two professorships, one in classics and comparative philology and literature, the other in English language and literature, and mental and mral philosophy. The new Council decided to use Elder's gift to appoint two further professors, in pure and applied mathematics and in natural science, the latter including geology and chemistry.


Like the existing universities in Sydney and Melbourne, Adelaide was anxious to recruit the best possible people to its foundation chairs, which characteristically required a broad range of scholarship. It was March 1876 before teaching could begin.




The foundation Professor of Pure and Applied Mathematics was Horace Lamb, Second Wrangler in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos of 1872 and Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics of Trinity College, Cambridge. Lamb had married in 1875 and had therefore been required to resign his college fellowship (7). One of his earlier schoolmasters, by then a clergyman in South Australia, persuaded him to apply for the Adelaide post, to which he was duly appointed. Nothing could be taken for granted in setting up a new institution so far from 'ham' (8); on 20 March 1876 Lamb wrote to the Registrar of the University to report that 'there will be little choice in the matter of chalk as Williams [a local stationer] has no such thing in his shops' (9).


Lamb's formal responsibilities were confined to pure and applied mathematics, but from the beginning and purely of his own volition he instituted and gave courses in natural philosophy at all three levels of the B.A. and B.Sc. degrees (10). Furthermore, in so far as the limitations of apparatus and space would allow, Lamb also held regular laboratory classes for the natural philosophy students.


Initially conditions were difficult, as the embryonic university moved from one set of inadequate, rented quarters to another. In September of his second year Lamb wrote to George Stokes, offering himself (unsuccessfully) for the Sydney mathematics chair, Stokes being on the selection committee (11). Furthermore, when the University reviewed the duties and salaries of its professors early in 1879, the Vice‑Chancellor reported to the University Council that 'Professor Lamb agreed with the proposal made to him with this exception ‑that he should not be required to accept the title and duties of Professor of Natural Philosophy in addition to that of Professor of Mathematics if his salary was to be the same as those of Professors Tate and Kelly, as his work would then be much increased' (12).


Despite these difficulties, however, Lamb became a beloved teacher, popular public lecturer and respected member of Adelaide society (13); he carried a large teaching and examining load, saw six of his children born there, and wrote and published the first edition of his famous hyrodynamics text (14).



In December 1883 Lamb wrote to the Registrar as follows (15):




I wish respectfully to ask the Council whether they would be disposed to grant me a year's leave of absence at the end of the next academical year [late 1884]. I shall then have been nine years in the service of the University, during which time I have undertaken duties which do not fall strictly within the scope of my professorship. I think I may fairly urge in support of my request that the change would give me opportunities, of rendering myself more capable of discharging these as well as my other duties with efficiency and advantage to the University.


I am…..’


This may now sound a rather straightforward request, but it contained the seeds of a long and sometimes distressing debate. First, there were no formal provisions for leave of absence. Second, Lamb was very reluctant personally to arrange for his teaching to be continued during his absence, despite two requests from the Council to do so (16). Third, the Council did not acknowledge the relevance of Lamb's other 'duties' (his physics teaching) to his application (17), although they did discuss the question with him as a separate matter; and finally they appear to have had a suspicion that the reasons for the request were? altogether or ... mainly of a personal and private character' (18).


Correspondence travelled back and forth between Lamb and the Council, but by January 1885 still no decision had been made. In February Lamb wrote a long letter to the Registrar regarding his physics teaching, at the end of which he begged leave 'to suggest that the Council should formally establish a separate Lectureship on Experimental Physics'. As I have no wish to create any unnecessary difficulties', he continued, 'I am willing ... to accept this for the present, as an honorary appointment, from year to year' (19). The Council agreed, and finally also acceded to Lamb's request for leave of absence, although by the time of his departure in mid‑1885 there was little doubt as to his underlying motive. With the aid of his old Trinity College colleague, Henry Taylor, Lamb had earlier applied for the chair of pure mathematics at Owens College, Manchester, the Council of which, on 19 June, has resolved to elect him 'subject to the receipt of satisfactory testimonials from Adelaide and to the result of an interview to be held with him on his return from Adelaide' (20).


Despite their protracted nature, these difficult negotiations left no permanent scars and Lamb and the University parted amicably (21). Indeed, Lamb subsequently acted for the University in the United Kingdom on numerous occasions, notably in the selection of his successor and as the University Library's buying agent for many years (22).


As far as the University Council was concerned the principal impediment to granting Lamb's request was the difficulty of providing for his teaching to be continued during his absence. It finally agreed only after Professor Rennie (chemistry) had expressed his willingness to undertake Lamb's duties (23), and subject to the passage of the following addition to Statute 2 ‑ of the Professors and Lectures (24):


'2A. The Council way at its discretion grant to any Professor or Lecturer or any officer of the University leave of absence for any time not exceeding one year on such Professor or Lecturer or other officer providing a substitute, to be approved by the Council, to act in his stead during such leave of absence.'



Thus was a study‑leave provision written into the University's legislation, the first such provision in Australia (25). It remains a generous but essential feature of Australian academic life.


As subsequent events were to show, the University also determined that if, as it suspected, a replacement for Lamb would soon be required, then it would seek a professor for a combined chair of mathematics and physics.




William Bragg's early life was extremely tough and testing. He did not remember his mother well, for she died in 1869 when he was barely seven years old (26). His father lived on but is almost totally absent from Bragg's later autobiographical notes. W.H.B. (27) grew into manhood with almost no remembered parental love or guidance. His boyhood was totally dominated, as was the rest of the Bragg family, by his Uncle William, with whom he went to live at Market Harborough in Leicestershire later in 1869. Here 'there were no parties for children; we never went to other people's houses, and no children came to ours. I think my uncle was too "particular" ... He used to lecture us terribly, talking by the hour, and I suspect he was not to be shaken in his opinions by any one' (28).


School offered some outlet. The old grammar school had been reopened, also in 1869, in ‘a quaint structure raised on wooden pillars’. The new master, Wood, 'was an able man, I believe, ... and I got on quickly enough' (29). In 1873, at the age of eleven, W.H.B. went up for the Oxford Junior Local Examinations at Leicester and was the youngest boy in England to get through, although he failed in Church history and Greek. An aptitude for mathematics and modern languages rather than the subjects of the old classical syllabus was already becoming apparent (30).


The few organized school ball‑games were 'a great delight', and there were some happy times with his cousin Fanny, who also lived with Uncle William. otherwise, whatever enjoyment, satisfaction and contentment the young W.H.B. found in life were discovered primarily within himself. He was already a solitary child: "I liked peace and was content to be alone with books or jobs of any sort' (31). But he was not, I suggest, without personal ambition; ~his tough childhood had made him self‑reliant, quietly self‑confident and self‑content. These characteristics would sustain him for the rest of his life, and they would be immediately advantageous at King William's Gollege, on the Isle of Man, where he spent his youth.


'In 1875 my father came to Harborough and demanded me; he wanted to send me to school at King William's College ...’, where his brother‑in‑law was a master. 'I think he became alarmed lest he should lose me altogether' (32). There are but few accounts of the college in the second half of the 19th century (33), and these do not paint an attractive picture. King William's had improved from the unhappy state described by Wilson, but it was no better than many other English public schools, where the conditions, as viewed by the present author from a considerable distance in position and time, can only be described as barbaric. The physical conditions could be extremely harsh, the social and psychological conditions no better. Cruelty among the boys, including the fagging system, was extraordinary, engendered no doubt to a significant degree by the fearful beatings that masters meted out to their pupils. If sexual imbalance and repression were endemic, then the sexual inhibitions of the masters were certainly unhelpful. And the fanatical religious revivals that swept numerous schools surely added to the unrest and confusion which the boys must have felt.



Regarding the 'religious storm' that swept the college in his final year, W.H.B. much later devoted two emotion‑filled pages of his brief autobiography to this time, and it clearly affected him profoundly. The headmaster did not then resolve his difficulties; nor later, it seems, did the escablished church. W.H.B. finally settled for a scientific‑intellectual humanism of his own making (34).


W.H.B. survived and eventually prospered in this environment by adhering strictly to the rules of the college, by applying himself diligently to his studies, by enjoying to the full the sporting, social and recreational opportunities that the school increasingly provided, and by submerging almost totally the emotions he had already learnt to hide. As he said of the school religious revival: 'the storm passed in time, by sheer exhaustion, and the fortunate distraction of other things, work and play' (35).


W.H.B. found much satisfaction in his school work, especially the mathematics with the Rev. D.D. Jenkins, 'a good fellow, keen, and a good teacher' (36). The ultimate academic goal for school and boys alike was a scholarship to one of the Oxford or Cambridge‑ colleges (37). W.H.B.'s surviving school reports testify to his exceptional mathematical ability and achievements (38). In 1880 he won, as His Excellency the Lieut. ‑Governor' s Prize for Mathematics in the Sixth Form, the two volumes of Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism; a formidable gift indeed (39). His scientific interests also extended beyong mathematics; in 1879 he won the college's Byrom Geology Prize (40).


Outside the classroom, W.H.B. was a praepositor (prefect) in the years 1879 to 1881, and Head of the School in 1880‑81. He was secretary of the Chess Association, an active member of the Literary and Debating Society, a fair cricketer, wanting 'freedcm and spirit in his play' (41), and a tennis and fives player. But it was the annual theatricals with the Histrionics Society that W.H.B. enjoyed most. It was 'great fun, the best event of the year', he remembered. 'We made scenery, collected costumes, rehearsed at times when we might have been doing lessons, and generally broke away from the ordinary run' (42). He was Bassanio in the Merchant of Venice and Claudio in much Ado About Nothing, but it was in farce, behind a theatrical mask, that W.H.B. let himself go as at no other time. The Barrovian reporter was lyrical about his perfon‑nance: 'the whole life of the piece was Bragg, as Susan, the maid of all work. From his first word "Lawks" to the end he kept the audience in continual fits of laughter' (43).


In the Easter week of 1880 examinations were held at Trinity College, Cambridge, for election to College Scholarships and Exhibitions. The Cambridge University Reporter of 13 April announced that Bragg had been awarded a Minor Scholarship, valued at 175 per year. The King William's College headmaster, Joshua Hughes‑Games, described it as 'the highest honour open to a school‑boy; and he has won one at an unusually early age, and against unusually strong competition' (44). Three other entrants had beaten him to the more lucrative Foundation Scholarships.


Because of his youth (17 years old) and on the advice of both Trinity College (45) and Hughes‑Gaines (46), W.H.B. returned to King William's College for a further year. He participated successfully and enjoyably in almost every available school activity, but his academic work stagnated, so that when he went up again to try for an improved Trinity scholarship he did not do as well as in 1880. The 'effective cause for my stagnation was the wave of religious experience that swept over the upper classes of the school during that year' , he remembered (47).





Bragg recalled that 'I went up to Cambridge in 1881, taking the rather unusual course of beginning work there in the Long [vacation]' (48). Three Australians entered Trinity College that year, two of whom W.H.B. was to become particularly aware of: William Sheppard, born in Sydney and educated in Brisbane (49), and Sydney Talbot Smith from Adelaide, whom he met on the lacrosse field. W.H.B.'s tutor was H.M. Taylor, a friend of Horace Lamb. He was allocated rooms in Whewell Court (50). In that first long vacation W.H.B. 'tried to get through an exam that would excuse me the Littlego, and I failed in Latin' (51); he had to take it in November after all. He passed Part I in the Second Class and Part II in the First; further proof, if any were needed, that mathematics was his strength (52). During this period 'it was lonely ... and I had no companions'. Furthermore, 'I could not afford, or thought I could not afford, to join the Union or the Boating Club' (53). His carefulness and reserve held him back.


When classes began he was accepted by Routh, who is remembered as the greatest of all the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos tutors. W.H.B.'s acceptance is indicative of his own awareness of the Cambridge scene and of Routh's early appreciation of his abilities. In the College examinations of 1882 W.H.B, was awarded a freshmen mathematics prize and his minor Scholarship was coverted into a Foundation Scholarship (54). His success gave him 'a standing in the College. I had the right then to join the Trinity Tennis Club without election, and to wear the strawberry and cream blazer; which was a source of pride. I sat in the scholars' seat in chapel…' (55). In 1883 he again won a College mathematics prize.


The next year, 1884, brought the examinations for Parts I and II of the Mathematical Tripos. The details are less important, but it should be noted more generally that the Tripos of the 1880s not only encompassed such Newtonian subjects as statics, dynamics, hydrostatics, optics, gravitational theory and astronomy, but also heat and electricity and magnetism. It had, in fact, a very applied mathematics flavour, providing a wide general education in the subject and fitting its graduates for a range of subsequent studies (56). By the time of the examinations W.H.B. was anxious and weary, but all this was forgotten in the elation with which he greeted the result ‑ 3rd Wrangler: 'I was fairly lifted up into a new world. I had a new confidence; I was extraordinarily happy.' He could still feel the joy of it 43 years later (57).


During the autumn of' 1884 W.H.B. worked for Part III of the Tripos, as it then was. When he later applied for the Adelaide Chair, the first reference he supplied was from Mr. Glazebrook, and its contents are most interesting in the present discussion (58):


'Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, Dec. 1, 1885.


Mr. W.H. Bragg of Trinity College attended several courses of my lectures while preparing for the Mathematical Tripos and since that time he has worked under my suggestions at the Cavendish Laboratory while studying practical physics. In his preparation for the third part of the Mathematical Tripos I supervised his reading as University Lecturer in the branch he was taking up. I have also examined him in various College Examinations. I have thus had ample opportunity of becoming acquainted with Mr. Bragg's powers and I have no hesitation in recommending him most strongly to the Electors for the Professorship of Mathematics and Physics




at Adelaide as being extremely well qualified to discharge the duties of the post and likely in every way to give satisfaction.


R.T. Glazebook, M.A., F.R.S. Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Demonstrator of Physics and University Lecturer in Mathematics.'


The branch of mathematics for which Glazebrook was particularly responsible was entitled 'Advanced Physics' in the Cambridge University Reporter, and involved the subjects of waves and sound, higher geometrical optics and the theory of light. This short, simple letter clearly throws considerable new light on the progress of W.H.B.'s career. We may note particularly both the waves and sound topic, a precursor to similar lectures to physics and music students in Adelaide, to later studies of the acoustic problems of the new Elder Hall at the University of Adelaide (59), and subsequently to extensive asdic and sound­ranging experiments by W.H.B. and W.L.B. during the appalling conflict of 1914‑18 (60); and also the theory of light, something W.H.B. must have remembered when, during his own research work in Adelaide suggesting the material nature of X‑rays and y‑ray (61), others stressed their similarity to light. Bragg's interests had already swung towards what we now call physics.


With the conclusion of the Part III examinations and the award of his First in the winter of 1884/85, W.H.B. was confronted with the question of his future. In more normal circumstances a Fellowship at Trinity College would have beckoned, but in 1884 his 'chances did not look well, because in 1883 the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th wranglers were all Trinity men, and in my year the lst (Sheppard), 2nd (Workman), 3rd (myself) and 5th (Cassie) were all Trinity men'. Had he had independent means, he could have contemplated leisurely study 'amongst books and people in Cambridge' (62). He was offered a commission by a publisher to solve all the problems in Smith's Conics; but he 'had other things to do' (63). These 'things' involved work in the Cavendish Laboratory. It had been 'Maxwell's view of the function of the laboratory that it should be a place to which men who had taken the Mathematical Tripos could come, and, after a short training in making accurate measurements, begin a piece of original research' (64). This scheme continued during Lord Rayleigh's professorship and in the early years of J.J. Thomson's tenure of the Cavendish chair, to which he had been appointed in December 1884. Thomson was himself a notable product of the scheme (65).


As we have seen, W.H.B. had a genuine interest in the physical sciences. He was an ideal candidate for the conversion course from mathematician to experimental scientist; indeed, he had already embarked upon it. He studied in the Cavendish for nearly the whole of 1885. All of this makes his later statement, ‘I had never done any [physics], nor worked at the Cavendish except for a couple of terms' (66), hard to understand. Appointed to a joint mathematics and physics chair in Adelaide, Bragg for a number of years referred to himself as Professor of Mathematics only, despite his increasing personal dedication to physics (67). The primacy of the Mathematical Tripos and of mathematics in his own education no doubt shaped his view, as too his modesty (68), although his old Trinity and Adelaide colleague Sydney Talbot Smith saw it a little differently: 'Well, we know how clever men can delight to exaggerate their own shortcomings. As Bragg always humorously told the story, he just bought some books on physics, studied them on the voyage, and ... was only about two jumps ahead of his students' (69).



His acquaintance with J.J. Thomson was also central to W.H.B.'s future. In 1882 Thomson had been elected to an Assistant Lectureship in mathematics at Trinity College, where he also resided, in the Great Court; the paths of the two young men must have crossed often. We know J.J. played the card game whist, and got his exercise by taking walks on a very regular basis. He was also a sports enthusiast (70). W.H.B. was a whist player, and had played the game with his brother Jack when Jack was seriously ill at King William's College. W.H.B. also recalled that, at Cambridge, 'every afternoon I played a game ... or went for a walk' (71). In 1885 W.H.B. too had rooms in the Great Court at Trinity, a reflection of his new status. These occasions are conjectural, but there is one other certain avenue of intimate contact between W.H.B. and J.J. in addition to that at the Cavendish; namely tennis. W.H.B. later recalled, "I knew him [J.J.] pretty well at that time [the end of 1885]; he and Carey Wilberforce and I used to play tennis regularly together (72).


If, throughout much of his time at Cambridge, W.H.B. knew little of matters outside his own line of work and was 'very much shut in on myself, unventuresome, shy and ignorant', then in the year after his graduation university life was 'spacious and beautiful', Cambridge ' a lovely place ' and Trinity 'something to be very proud to belong to' (73).




Horace Lamb's appointment as Professor of Pure Mathematics in the Owens College, Manchester, was formally confirmed on Friday, 2 October 1885 (74). According to a plan previously drafted between Lamb, the University of Adelaide and the Agent‑General for South Australia in London, Sir Arthur Blyth, arrangements for the appointment of a successor were implemented immediately. On Monday, 5 October, Blyth wrote to J.J. Thomson at Cambridge, asking him 'to aid the University in the selection of a successor to Professor Lamb', and 'to name the newspapers in which you think the advertisement should appear' (75). Thomson agreed, and with Lamb and Blyth formed the Board of Selection, with full authority to make the appointment without further reference to Adelaide. Such an untrammeled procedure was not universal in Australian universities at the time,

but it is a vivid illustration of the reliance they placed upon Oxbridge professors and graduates for many decades. There was one notable Australian applicant for the position, William Sutherland, M.A. (Melbourne), B.Sc. (London), who later because an outstanding theoretical chemical physicist (76); he had to send his application to London (77).


The conditions, as set out in the advertisement, were as follows (78):


'The University of Adelaide


Elder Professor of Mathematics and Experimental Physics.


The Council invite applications for the above Professorship. Salary £800 per annum. The appointment will be for a term of five years, subject to renewal at the discretion of the Council. Salary will date from lst March, 1886 and the Professor will be expected to enter on his duties on that date. An allowance will be made for travelling expenses. Applications, with testimonials, should reach Sir Arthur Blyth ... not later than lst December 1885.'

The circumstances surrounding W.H.B.'s last‑minute application for the position are well known. Walking along King's Parade one morning to attend a lecture by Thomson at the Cavendish, Bragg was joined by the lecturer, who asked if Sheppard, the Senior Wrangler in his year, was going in for the post; a



logical question as Sheppard was an Australian. W.H.B. thought not; and he then 'asked J.J. whether I might have any chance, and he said that he thought I might'. W.H.B. was astonished at the whole episode: 'it had never occurred to me that anyone so young might be eligible'. Also the 'salary seemed too big for such untried people' (79). His naivety very nearly cost him the appointment that was to shape the course of his future life.


'The total number of candidates is twenty three', the Agent‑General reported to the Registrar of the University of Adelaide, 'but one of these has sent in an informal application which cannot be entertained' (80). J.E.A. Steggall, Second Wrangler in 1878 and First Smith's Prizeman, was the applicant concerned. He would surely have been a strong candidate, but he declined to pursue his provisional application (81). Even without Steggall the field was an impressive one: 15 Cambridge graduates, of whom 14 were Wranglers and two Smith's Prizemen, two Oxford graduates, two London, one Trinity College, Dublin, and two whose background I have been unable to trace. Thomson and Lamb met Blyth to discuss the applications and decided to draw up a short list for interview in London. It consisted of J.F. Adair, 7th Wrangler in 1878, W.H. Bragg, and C. Graham, 3rd Wrangler in 1878 and Second Smith's Prizeman. We may wonder why the only Senior Wrangler and First Smith's Prizeman on the list was not invited to attend. The reason is probably contained in the following extract from W.H.B.'s autobiographical notes (82):


'By the way, I forgot to say ... that the electors could have sent out a Senior Wrangler of great ability, but he was not safe with the bottle. They thought, however, that they had better consult an Adelaide man who happened to be in London, and he was in favour of the young man who so far had kept off the drink. The Adelaide man was my future father‑in‑law [Sir Charles Todd].'


Lamb reported to the Chancellor of the University of Adelaide that 'By far the ablest man in the list was excluded ... on personal grounds' (83). When the electors met in London on Thursday, 17 December, Adair was absent owing to illness and the interviews were short. The Board had two additional references for W.H.B.; his College tutor, Taylor, thought him 'a sound and careful mathematician', and Routh certified that 'he has great mathematical talent'. That evening, at Market Harborough, a telegram broke the exciting news. In the dark of nightfall Uncle William broke down and wept.


The next day Lamb hastened to give the Adelaide Chancellor 'some account of the manner in which we have discharged our stewardship' (84). He reported:


'…..Yesterday the interviews were held and ‑ after some slight hesitation between two of the candidates ‑ we unanimously recommend ... Mr. Bragg of Trinity College, Cambridge... It is evident that his math abilities are of the highest, and he has also worked at Physics in the Cavendish Laboratory under my coadjutor in the appointment, who says that his work is very good. I was up at Cambridge a week before our last meeting and ... Mr. Bragg bears a high reputation in every way... As far as I can judge, the only possible source of misgiving as to the propriety of our choice is Mr. Bragg's youth, he is only 23. Personally, I do not think much of this. I cannot but remember that I was myself not much older when I went to Adelaide .....




I can testify also that Prof. J.J. Thomson took great care and trouble in this matter, and showed the greatest anxiety to come to a fair decision.


With kind regards I am my dear Chief Justice Yours very sincerely, Horace Lamb.


'P.S. The most curious incident in the award was a letter from Lord Carnarvon (Viceroy of Ireland) arguing that there might be a danger that 'justice to Ireland' would not be done unless some Irish Mathn of repute were put on the Board to look after the interests of Irish candidates. Sir A. Blyth sent a very dignified reply.'


Two years later J.J. Thomson confided to his old friend Richard Threlfall, by then Professor of Physics at Sydney University, regarding a further application from Adair for a Demonstratorship (85):


'I do not think he has a very extensive knowledge of the book‑work of Physics but he is a good Mathematician (in fact he very nearly got Bragg's appointment) ... he is a gentleman, but an Irish one, and this is my chief doubt as Sir Arthur Blyth told me Irishmen were very unpopular in Australia.'


Graham too was an Irishman, as was Thomas Lyle, another applicant for the Adelaide Chair. Lyle had the added apparent disadvantage of having completed his studies at Trinity College, Dublin, although he was soon to follow Bragg to Australia as Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Melbourne. It is perhaps not surprising that late in 1885 the Earl of Carnarvon and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland had written to the Agent‑General for South Australia supporting claims by Trinity College, Dublin, that 'Irish Candidates for Educational posts have been frequently overlooked by the Colonial authorities ... in mathematics especially ... as these appointments are practically in the hands of Cambridge men' (86). Blyth replied that his instructions from Adelaide did not permit him to accede to the request, but promised to forward the correspondence to Adelaide for further consideration. He also pointed out that Irish candidates had been successful in previous professional appointments. Blyth was sensitive to local prejudices. South Australians were predominantly English and Welsh and very strongly non‑conformist. There was a lower proportion of both Irish immigrants and Roman Catholics in Adelaide than in other Australian capital cities, and those Irish men and women who had emigrated were predominantly working class and unskilled, sometimes uncouth and generally disliked (87).


The choice of W.H.B. was a bold one, and we may wonder if it was an equally daring decision of W.H.B. to accept; but the answer is probably no. Australia was a well‑known and integral part of the British Empire, and service in the colonies was a well‑trodden path for capable Englishmen. The Cambridge colleges of the time had a surprisingly large number of Australian undergraduates drawn principally from the newly emerging upper class. Sheppard and Talbot Smith have already been mentioned, and many of the prominent Adelaide families were also represented: Barker, Barr‑Smith, O'Halloran‑Giles, Fowler, Robin, Ibbotson and Murray (88). Although W.H.B. apparently knew none of them well, even he cannot have failed to recognize an Australian presence in Cambridge. In addition, the position was a professorship, where he could be his own master, with a 'magnificent' salary, and all the adventure of going abroad to a new country. As for the dual nature of the appointment, it was common for the young Australian universities to ask their professors to cover more than one discipline, and joint lectureships in mathematics and physics were widespread



until the 1920s. W.H.B. probably viewed the duality of the Adelaide chair with much less trepidation than has previously been suggested; the mathematics surely held no terrors, and he was clearly far better prepared for the physics than was earlier understood. Only the extent of the demand on his time and physical stamina lay menacingly hidden.


Preparations for W.H.B.'s departure proceeded apace: 'the next three weeks was a grand time' (89). During 1885 his father had died, an event quite unrecorded in his autobiographical notes; and the day before he sailed his aunt and Uncle William came to London with the news that his brother Jack had just died. At the King William College 1882 Prize Day, Jack had been singled out for special attention for having obtained full marks for all the sixth‑form mathematics papers set (90), but his very promising career had finally succumbed to a constantly recurring illness. Many years later, in 1915, W.H.B. would lose another gifted young man tragically close to his heart (91). Yet neither of the present tragedies could dull his elation: 'next day [14 January 18861 they saw me off at Tilbury, and there I was away on the great adventure, thrilled by it' (92).




The boat trip to Australia on the Rome was an exciting, relaxing and fascinating journey for the young professor. He read some of Deschanel's Electricity and magnetism on the way (93). The long journey provided a useful transition from the cold and damp of the northern mid‑winter to the torrid southern summer in the heat and openness of the Adelaide plain. W. H. B. was landed by tender at Glenelg, where, only 50 years before, the first settlers of the new Colony had also come ashore. Next day Dr. Alfred Lendon called for W.H.B. and took him on his rounds in his horse‑drawn Victoria. That first day was one of the most important of W.H.B.'s 23 years in Australia, the people he met symbolic of his new life. First there was Lendon himself, who became a close personal friend and with whom W.H.B. boarded during his early years in Adelaide. He was to become one of Adelaide's leading medical identities and to hold numerous medical and academic posts (94). He would be best man at W. H. B.'s wedding three years later, and W.H.B. would be godfather to Lendon's elder son.


During that first day they also called at Dr. Way's and were refreshed with green figs; 'lovely I thought' (95). The Hon. Samuel Way Ll.D. was the Chief Justice of South Australia and Chancellor of the University. His home, Montefiore in North Adelaide, was one of the city's best‑known houses; it had a magnificent garden and large hothouses, and Way used it extensively for entertaining, for which it was renowned. It also contained Way's outstanding personal library of more than 14,000 volumes and his magnificent art collection. Way was a staunch Methodist. He represented better than anyone else in the colony the academic and social milieu into which W.H.B. was soon to be accepted (96).


Finally the two newly acquainted young bachelors trotted down the hill, across the Morphett Street Bridge over the River Torrens lake, and soon arrived at the neat clump of observatory Buildings in the West Parklands. The ample two­storeyed home of Charles Todd, Government Astronomer, Postmaster‑General and Superintendent of Telegraphs, looked out over West Terrace. Here they had been invited for supper, and here W.H.B. met the Todd family for the first time. Charles Todd was famous throughout the country as the architect and builder of the Trans‑continental Overland Telegraph Line, one of the epic achievements of Australian history (97). He was genial and friendly, possessed of an over­bountiful fund of humour which reveled in puns, spoonerisms and riddles. He was



an accomplished astronomer and physical scientist, one of the very few in the colony. W.H.B. would find pleasure in his company and conversation; together they would pioneer radio in Australia in the 1890s (98). Alice Todd, his wife, impressed W.H.B. at once (99). She too has a memorial associated with the overland Telegraph; for during construction in 1871, the sub‑overseer W.W. Mills had discovered a large spring of water in his section of the line and had named it Alice Springs, in honour of the Superintendent's wife.


What W.H.B. does not immediately mention, but what we can surely guess caught his eye, were the other members of the Todd family. The two sons Charles Edward and Hedley Lawrence were in their middle twenties, beginning medical and business careers respectively. In later years W.H.B. would be consulted by Dr. Charles on the medical uses of the new X‑rays, and by Hedley on the electrification of the city. But most of all there were the four daughters: Lizzie, Maude, Gwen (16 years old) and Lorna. Their irresponsible chatter delighted W.H.B. most. It was a revelation to a young man taught to weigh every word he uttered and, until that day, almost totally deprived of female companionship and affection. They nicknamed him 'The Fressor', and he blossomed under the cheerful and inconsequential atmosphere they created (100).


W.H.B. and the third daughter, Gwendoline, courted, married and built their subsequent lives together, and their relationship will repay further study, for this particular family was to be quite unique in all the history of science. W.H.B. supplied the solidity and the direction of their lives. Gwendoline the social and family environment. He depended on her for all the womanly qualities that his earlier life had lacked. The large, emotional plaque that he placed in the entrance hall of The Royal Institution after his wife died is evocative testimony to his affection and gratitude. Its text speaks of Davy and Faraday but its symbols are a child surrounded by birds in flight. She gave him their children, and she lifted his spirits to the sky (101). William Bragg had arrived in Adelaide.


When W.H.B. entered the University he found an institution still struggling to establish itself. A recent account by Blainey of the University of Melbourne also applied to Adelaide at this time (102):


'The basic weakness of the university was neither shortage of money nor conservatism of thought, but rather a shortage of students who wanted to study and who could afford to study. The university capped the pyramid of education, but the base of that pyramid was weak.'


W.H.B. was responsible for all the pure and applied mathematics and all the physics and practical physics teaching, and for much of the secondary‑school public examining in these subjects as well. There is no precise information on his university teaching load in 1886; fortunately, in that first year there were no third‑year mathematics students. As for examinations, by the end of his first year Bragg had set and marked 29 major examination papers: 7 in March just after his arrival (2 university supplementary mathematics papers and 5 Matriculation exams), 10 mathematics and physics papers for B.A. and B.Sc. students at the end of the academic year in November, and 3 exams for the South Australian Scholarship and 9 papers for the Junior and Matriculation public examinations in December. One can readily picture the long evening hours W.H.B. spent pouring over Horace Lamb's syllabuses and previous examination papers in an endeavour to acquaint himself with the requirements of such a wide range of courses (103).


In addition there were 48 evening lectures to be given to a class of ten students in advanced mathematics; men and women who were employed during the day and who sought to further their education in the evenings. Adelaide had but one



government secondary school at this time, the Advanced School for Girls. Secondary education was otherwise the sole preserve of private and denominational establishments and therefore available only to those families that could afford the fees; and in South Australia the 1880s were a time of depression and widespread unemployment. As if all this were not enough, W.H.B. also gave lectures to second‑year music students on acoustics, a course in which he took particular delight. It was no doubt based on his studies with Glazebrook and he filled his lectures with demonstrations and analogies. Of all the lectures he gave in Adelaide that first year, he kept only these notes; they are still among his papers in the archives of The Royal Institution (104).


During 1886 W.H.B. wrote to the Council of the University on three occasions: first to ask for lengths of rubber tubing for the Physical Laboratory, second to point out that 'in the mathematical lecture room there are no desks or tables on which students may take notes during lecture[s] ', and third to request the purchase of 17 books for the Library (105). Later that same year he had returned only 6 of the 47 texts he had earlier borrowed from that same library; preparation for lectures and other very basic matters of teaching filled his days. In October he was elected Dean (and Chairman) of the Professorial Board.


Nor were recreational activities neglected. The game of lacrosse was introduced in South Australia in 1885, and in the winter of 1886 W.H.B. joined his old Cambridge team‑mate, Talbot Smith in the Adelaide team. The Adelaide Observer newspaper reported that W.H.B. rapidly established himself as 'without doubt, the finest all‑round player we have' (106). In future years he would be the central figure in the expansion of the competition (107). In the summer there were games of tennis on the university court and elsewhere (108).


In October of his first year in Adelaide, Professor Bragg took the male lead in a comic drama in two acts entitled 'The Jacobite' (109). It was presented in the Torrens Park Theatre, a magnificent auditorium built by Robert and Joanna Barr‑Smith at their massive home at Mitcham, in the Adelaide foothills. Barr Smith had large pastoral holdings, and his company, Elder Smith & Co., pioneered much of the pastoral settlement of South Australia. His philanthropy became legendary, the University not the least of his beneficiaries. Mr. & Mrs. Barr‑Smith were lavish and charming hosts, and the theatre, with its intricate plaster work, oval windows, fully equipped stage and seating for 200 people, became the venue for countless entertainments (110). W.H.B.'s participation in at least one of these is a reminder of his love of theatricals, and indication of his immediate acceptance into the highest level of Adelaide society, and a crucial pointer to his future fame. Seventeen years later Barr­Smith would provide the money with which W.H.B. purchased his first radium sample and thereby began his extraordinary research career (111).


In January 1887, during the long summer vacation, W.H.B. visited Melbourne and Sydney; young, moneyed and energetic, he was keen to explore his vast new homeland. He travelled 500 miles by train to Melbourne, where he was able to use Routh's letter of introduction to Professor Nanson (112), and then by boat to Sydney, where Richard Threlfall welcomed him (113). Two months earlier, and after several years of discussion, a preliminary meeting of an Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science (A.A.A.S.) had been held in Sydney, of which W.H.B. was no doubt anxious to hear a first‑hand report. In the years ahead, the regular meetings of the A.A.A.S. would provide him with invaluable opportunities for professional and personal development (114).




His first year in Adelaide may have been full of activity, but the second year, 1887, was the one in which W.H.B. experienced the full impact of his new responsibilities. In July he recorded the details of his weekly teaching commitments (see Table 1) (115). There were 28 weeks in the academic year and W.H.B. therefore spent 672 contact hours with his students in that year, 168 of them in the evenings. Even by the standards of the day this was an extraordinary teaching load, made all the more remarkable by the fact that he did not have a single academic colleague to assist with student difficulties or the 21 university examinations involved, and only one part‑time laboratory assistant to help build, prepare and supervise the lecture demonstrations and laboratory experiments. It is said that W.H.B. was an unimpressive lecturer to start with, being too careful and too mathematical (116). That he later became renowned as a lecturer without peer may owe something to the level of practice he had in Adelaide during his early years there.


This incredible commitment in no way reduced that to his other duties. In March W.H.B. set and marked five mathematics, one natural philosophy and one English history Matriculation examination, and in November another five ‑mathematics and two physics public examination papers (117). On 27 July 1887, W.H.B. wrote to the Council of the University (118):




W.H. Bragg's teaching commitments, at the University of Adelaide

for the academic year 1887 (note 115)


                                                               Hours per week


lst year          mathematics                                                                 2

                      physics                                                                         2

2nd year        mathematics                                                                 2

3rd year        mathematics                                                                 2


lst year          same as lst year B.A.

2nd year        mathematics (extra)                                                      1

                      physics                                                                         2

                      practical physics                                                          2

3rd year        physics                                                                         2

                      practical physics                                                          2


            Acoustics                                                                                           1

Evening classes

            mathematics                                                                                       2

            physics                                                                                               2

            practical physics                                                                                2

                                                                                         total                     24

Additional in 1888

            honours in 3rd year mathematics                                                       2



'I beg respectfully to call your attention to the large increase in the duties which devolve upon me as Professor of Mathematics, and to my need of assistance to enable me to fulfill them satisfactorily... Next year at least one new class must be started in accordance with the University regulations.


'These lectures are so many that I cannot make them fit in with the




lectures of the other professors... [and] not only is there no time to get all these lectures in, but the strain of so much teaching is very heavy: to do so at all well is beyond the strength of one man....


'I would rather suggest that when it is possible an assistant lecturer in mathematics be appointed


The matter was referred to the Education Committee, which recommended in August that, 'for the sake of the students as well as Professor Bragg, it is desirable that help should be given him next year if the funds will permit' (119). In December W.H.B. wrote to the Chancellor urging that the recommendation be carried out. He proposed that a salary of £300 a year be offered, £100 f ram the Evening Class Fund and £100 from the University chest; ' the other £100 I will provide myself for the first two years, if the Council will then relieve me of that duty' (120). It was a generous and astute offer.


There were six excellent applicants when the position was advertised shortly afterwards. The Education Committee discussed them fully in January, 'and ultimately Professor Bragg, who was about to start for Tasmania, was desired en route to see one candidate in Melbourne, and one in Tasmania; and to report which of the two he considered the better fitted for the lectureship, the Committee to recommend the gentleman so selected to the Council for appointment' (121). W.H.B. Was going to Tasmania to join Gwen and Charlie Todd, who had gone over for a holiday; and from Hobart he wrote to the Registrar of the University to report (122):


'I have chosen Chapman as assistant lecturer: he knew a great deal more than the other man, was energetic and strong in appearance, whilst the other was of the scholastic, weak‑eyed type. I think Chapman will do very well. By the way he is an oarsman [and] has rowed 6 for Trinity against Ormond. Will you please send him a Calendar as soon as it comes out?'


Robert Chapman, M.A. and B.C.E. from, the University of Melbourne, thus began a lifelong commitment to tertiary education in South Australia (123). We may wonder about some of these stated selection criteria, as we earlier questioned some aspects of the procedures associated with W.H.B.'s own appointment, but in each case the result was quite exceptional; Bragg and Chapman were to become two of the University of Adelaide's most dedicated servants and most illustrious scholars.


W.H.B. had his assistant. Furthermore, when he proposed to Gwen in Tasmania she accepted, subject to approval. Charlie telegraphed their parents and the answer came back: 'say everything kind to both' (124). For W.H.B. going to Australia had indeed become 'like sunshine and fresh invigorating air' (125).




The research, of which this paper is the first substantial result, has benefited from the generous assistance of many people whom I am unable to mention individually but to whom. I wish to express my gratitude. These include library and other institutional staff as well as individual people in Adelaide, London, Cambridge, Castletown (Isle of Man), Market Harborough and Melbourne. I am indebted to the various institutions noted throughout the paper for permission to use and to quote from material in their care. Most particularly I wish to thank the Bragg and Adrian families for their generous assistance, Professor Rod. Home for much guidance and encouragement, Mrs. Margaret Gibbs for painstaking research work, and the Australian Research Grants Scheme for financial assistance.



An earlier version of this paper was presented at a meting entitled 'The Lives and Works of William and Lawrence Bragg', arranged by The Royal Institution Centre for the History of Science and Technology, and held at The Royal Institution on 13 January 1984.




(1)       E.N. daC. Andrade, 'William Henry Bragg 1862‑1942' , Obit. Not. Fell. R. Soc. Lond. 4 (1942‑4), p. 289.

(2)       Sir David Phillips, 'William Lawrence Bragg', Biog. Mem. Fell. R. Soc. Lond. 25 (1979), 75‑143.

(3)       Andrade, op. cit. p. 280.

(4)       G.M. Caroe, William Henry Bragg 1862‑1942: Man and Scientist (Cambridge University Press, 1978), pp. 2‑3.

(5)       The most widely respected historian of the early years of South Australia is D. Pike, Paradise of Dissent (London, Longmans, 1975); a shorter and more general work is R.M. Gibbs, A History of South Australia (Adelaide, Southern Heritage, 1984).

(6)       W.G.K. Duncan & R.A. Leonard, The University of Adelaide 1874‑1974 (Adelaide, Rigby, 1973), Chapter 1.

(7)       R.T. Glazebrook, 'Sir Horace Lamb, 1849‑1934' , Obit. Not. Fell. R. Soc. Lond. 1 (1935), 375‑392.

(8)       Many Australian families for generations referred to the United Kingdom as 'home'.

(9)       University of Adelaide Archives (U.A.A.), series 169 (1876) Letter Lamb to Barlow (Registrar),

20 March.

(10)     U.A.A. series 169 (1885). Draft letter Lamb to Registrar, 20 February, in which Lamb notes that 'the teaching of Experimental Physics was undertaken by me proprio motu, without any suggestion from the Council'.  Following patterns set at the University of London, Adelaide, from the beginning, sought powers to award science degrees and to confer degrees on women. After some delay, Royal Letters Patent were granted in 1881 giving the University everything it sought and making it a pioneer in

both respects: Duncan & Leonard, op. cit. p.14.

(11)     University Library Cambridge, Stokes' correspondence (add. MS 7656). Letter Lamb to Stokes,

13 September 1876 M12).

(12)     U.A.A. series 18 (1879).         Council Minutes, vol. II, p. 89 (March meeting).

(13)     R.B. Potts, 'Lamb, Sir Horace (1849‑1934)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 5 (Melbourne University Press, 1974), p.55.

(14)     H. Lamb, Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of the Motion of Fluids (Cambridge University Press, 1897).

(15)     U.A.A., series 169 (1883). Letter Lamb to Registrar, 19 December.

(16)     U.A.A., series 1 (1884). Letter Book no. 8. Letters Tyas (Registrar) to Lamb, 11 January and 21 April. The University was acutely short of funds during this period and Lamb was apparently unwilling to pay the necessary costs himself.

(17)     U.A.A., series 169 (1885).      Letter (draft) Lamb to Registrar, 20 February.

(18)     U.A.A., series 169 (1884). Letter Lamb to Registrar, 28 March, denying this motive.

(19)     Note 17, p. 6.

(20)     University of Manchester:       minutes of meeting of Council of Owens College, 19 June 1885.




(21)       In his letter of resignation addressed to the Chancellor of the University of Adelaide from The Owens College, Manchester (6 October 1885), Lamb says: 'In thus severing my official connection with the Adelaide University ... I do so with many feelings of regret, and I shall always cherish most pleasant memories of the years spent in its service' (U.A.A., series 169, 1885).

(22)       There are numerous references in U.A.A. regarding Lamb's work for the University Library.

(23)       U.A.A., series 1 (1886), Letter Book no. 10. Letter Tyas (Registrar) to Lamb, 29 March. Rennie received remuneration for his additional services for the quarter ending 31 December 1885; Lamb's successor was required to arrive in time for the start of the next academic year (March 1886).

(24)      Adelaide University Calendar (1886), p.62.

(25)       Similar but less generous provisions were introduced at the University of Sydney in 1895 and at the University of Melbourne in 1898.

(26)       The few memories that remained Bragg lovingly recalled later: W.H. Bragg, untitled autobiographical notes (ca 1927, with additions ca 1937): The Royal Institution Archives (R.I.A.), Bragg papers, 14E/l, p.4. These notes are concerned almost exclusively with Bragg's boyhood, youth and arrival in Australia.

(27)       It is necessary to use some form of unambiguous abbreviations to distinguish between William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg. With their consent, I have chosen to use those adopted by the family over many years; namely W.H.B. and W.L.B.; cf. Caroe, op. cit.

(28)       W.H.B. autobiography, op. cit. p.10.

(29)       Ibid. p.9.

(30)       Ibid. The certificate that W.H.B. received remains in the Bragg family papers, now in the care of Lady Adrian, Pembroke College, Cambridge.

(31)       Ibid. p.12.

(32)       Ibid. p.13

(33)       J.M. Wilson, James M. Wilson: An Autobiography (London, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1932);

              J. Gathorne‑Hardy, The Public School Phenomenon 597‑1977 (Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1979); W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. It should be added that King William's College is now a vastly different institution from that depicted in these works.

(34)       The present paper is not the place to expand upon and document the conclusions. However, even a brief reading of the references given in (33) gives credance to these views.

(35)       W.H.B. autobiography, op. cit. p.18.

(36)       Ibid. p.14.

(37)       The early entrance hall of the College is lined with dark wooden honour boards which record in Old English script the names and distinctions of previous scholars at Oxford, Cambridge and the military acadamies. The College magazine, The Barrovian (named after one of the school's founders, Bishop Barrow), included regular accounts of Oxford and Cambridge life.

(38)       Most of W.H.B.'s Terminal Reports from King William’s College are preserved in his personal papers, now in the care of Lady Adrian, Pembroke College, Cambridge.

(39)       The Barrovian no. 3 (second series) p. 126 (September 1880).

(40)       H.S. Christopher, King William's College Register 1833‑1904 (Glasgow, Maclehose, 1905), p. 348.

(41)       The Barrovian no. 3 (second series), p. 126 (September 1880).

(42)       W.H.B. autobiography, op‑cit. p.14.

(43)       The Barrovian no. 1, second series (April 1880) p.13.

(44)       Letter Joshua Hughes‑Games to R.J. Bragg (W.H.B.'s father), 14 May 1880, in Bragg family papers, op.cit.

(45)       W.H.B. autobiography, op‑cit. p.15.



(46)     Note 44.

(47)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.16.

(48)     Ibid. p.18.

(49)     Trinity College Admission Book 1850‑, Trinity College Library, Cambridge. W.W.R. Ball & J.A. Venn, Admissions to Trinity College, Cambridge (London, Macmillan, 1913), p.647.

(50)     Trinity College Room Rents 1871‑1897 (Trinity College Library, Cambridge).

(51)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.19.

(52)     Part I of the Previous Examination involved biblical and Latin and Greek studies, Part II Euclid and some arithmetic and elementary algebra: Cambridge University Reporter, 19 November 1881, p. 151, and 16 December 1881, pp. 206‑212.

(53)     Note 51.

(54)     Cambridge University Reporter, 25 April 1882, pp. 497‑498.

(55)     Note 51.

(56)     D.B. Wilson, 'Experimentalists among the mathematicians: physics in the Cambridge Natural Science Tripos, 1851‑1900'. Hist. Stud. Phys. Sci. 12, 2 (1982), 325‑371.

(57)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.20.

(58)     U.A.A., series 200, docket No.5/1886. This docket contains Bragg's letter of application for the Adelaide post, his three references from Routh, Glazebook and Taylor, and a list of applicants.

(59)     See, for example, minutes of the Board of Musical Studies and related correspondence, University of Adelaide archives, series 129,

(60)     See, for example, W.D. Hackmann, 'Underwater acoustics and the Royal Navy, 1893‑19301m Ann. Sci. 36 (1979), 255‑276; W.L. Bragg, A.H. Dowson & H.H. Hefmning, Artillery Survey in the First World War (London, Field Survey Association, 1971), chapter 4.

(61)     R.H. Stuewer, 'William H. Bragg's corpuscular theory of X‑rays and ‑rays', Br. J. Hist. Sci. 5, 19 (1971), 258‑281; B.R. Wheaton, The Tiger and the Shark: Empirical Roots of Wave‑particle Dualism (Cambridge University Press, 1983).

(62)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.22.

(63)     Ibid. p.20.

(64)     J.J. Thomson, Recollections and Reflections (London, Bell, 1936), p.95.

(65)     Ibid.

(66)     W.H.B. autobiography, op‑cit. p.30.

(67)     In correspondence and in the annual Adelaide University Calendar until 1899.

(68)     Caroe, op‑cit.

(69)     S. Talbot Smith 'Memories of Sir Wm. Bragg' , The Mail (newspaper) (Adelaide, 4 April 1942), p.7.

(70)     Lord Rayleigh, The Life of Sir J.J. Thomson O.M. (Cambridge University Press, 1942).

(71)     W.H.B. autobiography, op‑cit. pp. 24, 19.

(72)     Ibid. p.21. 'Carey' Wilberforce would appear to be L.R. Wilberforce, Trinity College and Cavendish physics student during Bragg's years there, and later Professor Physics at Liverpool; se J.A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses, vol. VI, pt. II (Cambridge University Press, 1940).

(73)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.21.

(74)     U.A.A., series 169 (1885). Letter Agent‑General to Tyas (Registrar), 29 September enclosing Letter Lamb to Agent‑General regarding Manchester appointment. Lamb sent a telegraph to Tyas on 3 October 1885, confirming his appointment and resignation.

(75)     Ibid. Letter Agent‑General to Thomson, 5 October.

(76)     W.A. Osborne, William Sutherland:  A Biography (Melbourne, Lothian, 1920).



(77)     U.A.A., series 169 (1885). Letter Sutherland to Registrar, 3 October.

(78)     See, for example, Cambridge University Reporter (13 October 1885), p.47.  The advertisement also appeared in The Times, Nature, Oxford University Gazette, The Athenaeun; The Academy ‑ U.A.A., series 169 (1885); copy of letter Agent‑General to London advertising agent, 7 October.

(79)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. pp. 21‑22.

(80)     U.A.A., series 200, docket no. 3/1886. Letter Agent‑General to Tyas (Registrar), 4 December.

(81)     South Australian Archives, State Library of S.A., Adelaide, series GRG 55/7. Letter Agent‑General to Steggall, 5 December 1885.

(82)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.30.

(83)     U.A.A., series 280, envelope 162 (various dates). Personal letter Lamb on Hon. S.J. Way, 18 December 1885.

(84)     Ibid.

(85)     University Library Cambridge, J.J. Thomson correspondence (add. MS 7654). Letter Thomson to Threlfall, 7 August 1887 (T19).

(86)     U.A.A., series 200, docket no. 2/1886. Letter Agent‑General to Tyas (Registrar), with 3 enclosures,

2 December.

(87)     See, for example, C. Nance, 'The Irish in South Australia during the colony's first four decades', J. Hist. Soc. S. Aust. no. 5 (1978), 66­73; D.L. Hilliard, 'The city of churches: some aspects of religion in Adelaide about 1900', ibid. no. 8 (1981), 3‑30.

(88)     D. van Dissel, The Adelaide gentry 1880‑1915 (University of Melbourne, M.A. Thesis, 1973).

(89)     W.H.B. autobiography, op‑cit. p.23.

(90)     The Barrovian no. 11, second series (October 1882) p.291.

(91)     His own second son, Robert Charles Bragg, during World War I.

(92)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.24.

(93)     Ibid. p.29‑30.

(94)     Unattributed obituary, 'Alfred Austin Lendon, M.D.' Proc. S. Aust. Brch. R. geogr. Soc. Aust. 36 (1934/5), 20‑21.

(95)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.31.

(96)     H.T. Burgess (ed.), The Cyclopedia of South Australia, Vol.I. (Adelaide, Cyclopedia Co., 1907), pp. 245‑247.

(97)     F. Clune, Overland Telegraph (Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1955).

(98)     J.R. Ross, A History of Radio in South Australia 1897‑1977 (Adelaide, author, 1978).

(99)     W.H.B. autobiography, op.cit. p.31.

(100)   Caroe, op.cit. pp.33‑34.

(101)   The plaque was designed and executed by Ernest Gillick, A.R.A.; it was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1934 (1934 R.A. Exhibition Catalogue), and in 1935 Gillick was awarded the Silver Medal of the Royal Society of British Sculptors for this work (private communication). The interpretation given here of the allegorical representation is mine; no record of the sculptor's interpretation appears to have survived.

(102)   G. Blaney, A Centenary History of the University of Melbourne (Melbourne University Press, 1957), p.24.

(103)   Details such as these have been gleaned primarily from the annual Adelaide University Calendar.

(104)   R.I.A. Bragg papers, 31A.

(105)   U.A.A., series 200, docket nos. 171/1886F 447/1886, 506/1186 respectively.

(106)   The Adelaide Observer, 30 April 1887, p.18.

(107)   J.G. Jenkin, 'William Bragg and lacrosse in Adelaide', Aust. Physicist 17, 5 (1980), 75‑78.

(108)   J.G. Jenkin, "William Bragg in Adelaide: tennis too', Aust. Physcist, 18, 4 (1981), 69‑70.




(109)   South Australian Collections, State Library of S.A., Adelaide, Box SC46, Programme for Torrens Park Theatre, 21 October 1886.

(110)   J. Brown & B. Mullins, Town Life in Pioneer South Australia (Adelaide, Rigby, 1980). pp. 174‑186.

(111)   W.H. Bragg, Studies in Radioactivity (London, Macmillan 1912), p.5.

(112)   Letter Routh to Bragg, 22 December 1885, in Bragg family papers, now in the care of Lady Adrian, Pembroke College, Cambridge. E.J. Nanson was Professor of mathematics there.

(113)   South Australian Register (newspaper), Adelaide, 4 January 1887, p.5; letter Bragg to wife, 5 January 1890, in Bragg family papers, op.cit.

(114)   For the foundation of A.A.A.S. see H.C. Russel, President's Address, Rep. Australas. Ass. Advmt. Sci. (Sydney, A.A.A.S., 1888), pp.1‑21; for the importance of A.A.A.S. to Bragg see R.W. Home. 'The problem of intellectual isolation in scientific life: W.H. Bragg and the Australian scientific community 1886‑1909', Hist. Records Aust. Sci. 6, 1 (1984), 19‑30.

(115)   U.A.A., series 200, docket no. 290/1887. Letter: Bragg to University Council, 27 July.

(116)   Caroe, op.cit. p.31.

(117)   Note 103.  During 1886‑7 there were major changes in the public examination system and the university was also in dispute with Professor Boulger, its usual English History examiner. The final two papers in

this subject under the old regulations were set by Professor Rennie (Chemistry) and Professor Bragg.

(118)   Note 115.

(119)   U.A.A., Report of the Education Committee no. 12/1887, 19 August.

(120)   U.A.A., series 200, docket no. 511/1887. Letter Bragg to Chancellor, 9 December.

(121)   U.A.A. Report of the Education Committee No. 1/1888, 17 January.

(122)   U.A.A., series 200, docket no. 60/1888. Letter Bragg to Tyas (Registrar) , 1 February. Trinity and Ormond are two of the colleges attached to the University of Melbourne.

(123)   Unattributed obituary, 'The late Sir Robert Chapman Kt.Bach', Instn­Engrs‑ Aust. 14 (1942), 101‑103. This article refers to Chapman as having had 'a few months experience…on railway construction in Victoria', the only evidence I have found of a widely told story that Bragg first spoke to Chapman regarding the Adelaide post on the Ballarat railway station.

(124)   Caroe, op‑cit. p.34.

(125)   W.H.B. autobiography, op‑cit., p.31.






SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                  CONF


ABBOTT                 WILLIAM PETER                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

AHMED                   NUBASHAR                                        PH.D                                 1978

AITCHISON            CORDON JAMES                                B.SC(HONS) M.SC PH.D                                 1940 1945 1957

ALDERSEY             ALGERNON LUMLEY HAYDON      B.Sc                                 1950

ALLAN                    PHILLIP THOMAS                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

ALLEN                     JAMES BERNARD                              B.Sc                                 1891

ALLEN                     WILLIAM DOUGLAS                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1935

AMIES                     BRIAN WALTER                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

ANDERSON            SYLVIA HILDA                                   B.Sc M.Sc                                 1950 1954

ANDREWS              MURRAY WILLIAM                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1950

ANGLEY                 RONALD JAMES                                B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1952 1954

ANGWIN                 HUGH THOMAS MOFFITT                B.Sc                                 1910

ANTCLIFFE            GAULT ANDERSON                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1966

ARGALL                  PHILIP STEPHEN                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

ASENSTORFER      JOHN ANTHONY                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

ATRENS                  ANDREJS                                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

AUSTIN                   WAYNE DEAN                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

AYLMORE              LANCE ARTHUR GRAHAM              B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1957 1961

BACK                      PHILLIP JAMES                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

BAGOT                    CHARLES HERVEY                           B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1958 1961

BAHR                      JOHN LESLIE                                      B.SC(HOHS) PH.D                                 1966 1970

BAILES                    MATTHEW                                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

BALL                       SUSAN MARGARET                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1976 1982

BARNDEN              LEIGHTON REGINALD                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1972

BARTLETT             BRIAN MERVYN                                B.Sc                                 1949

BARTUSEK             KAREL                                                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1964 1971

BASEDOW              ROBERT WILLIAM                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

BASTIAN                ALAN CHARLTON                             M.SC                                 19618

BAYLY                    L41LLIAPI REY14OLDS                     B.SC                                 1898

BEARE                    THOMAS HUDSON                            B.A                                 1887

BEATTIE                 ALLAN GEOFFREY                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

BEBEE                     DAVID JOHN                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

BEDNARZ               BERNARD                                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1973 1978

BENNET                  ARTHUR DAVID                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

BERESFORD          ANTHONY CHARLES                        B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1974

BEVAN                    ARTHUR REGINALD                         M.Sc                                 1960

BIBBO                     GIOVANNI                                           PH.D                                 1978

BIRKS                      LAWRENCE                                        B.SC                                 1894

BLACKBURN         TREVOR ROBERT                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

BLAKE                    ALASTAIR JOSEPH                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1967

BLESING                 ROBERT GRAHAM                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1974

BLIGHT                   JOHN MALCOLM                               B.SC                                 1950

BOAS                       ISAAC HERBERT                               B.SC                                 1899

BOHM                     ROBERT ROMAN                               B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1969 1975

BOSHER                  VICTOR JAMES MARCEL                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1948 1949

BOSWELL               RODERICK WILLIAM                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1966

BOSWORTH           RICHARD CHARLES LESLIE            B.SC(HONS) M.SC D.SC                                  1910 1931 1930

BOUNDY                 WILLIAM STEVENSON                     B.SC M.SC                                 1950 1969

BOWER                   ANTHONY RICHARD DAVID           B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

BOYD                      ASHLEY JAMES                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1961

BRAGG                   WILLIAM HENRY                               M.A                                 1888

BRENNAN              MAXWELL HOWARD                        PH.D                                 1964

BRIDGES                GARETH EDWARD                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

BRIDGES                ROBERT DEAN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

BRIGGS                   BASIL HUGH                                       PH.D                                 1963

BRIMBLE                GORDON STUART                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

BRISSENDEN         ROGER JAMES VERGE                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

BROMWICH           DAVID WILLIAM                                B.SC(HONS)                                 l975

BROSE                    HENRY HERMAN LEOPOLD            B.SC D.SC                                 1910 1931





SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                  CONF


BROWN                   ROGER NORMAN                              B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1953 1959

BROWN                   MARY HOME                                      B.SC                                 1902

BROWN                   JAMES WATSON                                B.SC                                 1892

BROWN                   DENIS HACKETT                               B. SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1961 1964

BROWN                   NICHOLAS                                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1973

BROWN                   MALCOLM STEWART                       M.SC                                 1970

BRUCE                    TIMOTHY EDMUND GREGORY      B.SC (HONS)                                 1985

BUNNEY                 BRONTE ROWLAND                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1952

BURDON                 ROY STANLEY                                   B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1916 1935

BURFORD               PETER JAMES                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

BURLEY                  SIMON PETER                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1965

BURNELL                REGINALD GEORGE                         B.A                                 1905

BUSELLI                  GIACHINO                                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1972

BUTEMENT            WILLIAM ALAN STEWART              D.SC                                 1961

BUTLER                  STUART THOMAS                             B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1947 1948

BUTTERFIELD       ANTHONY WILLIAM                         B.SC(HONS) PH. D                                 1965 1970

BYRNE                    PAUL KEVIN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

CAMERON              ROBERT ANDREW                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

CAMERON              MICHAEL THOMAS                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

CAMPBELL             JOHN ARTHUR                                   B.SC M.SC                                 1961 1964

CAMPBELL             ROBERT DEAN                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1969

CAMPBELL             ALLEN PETER                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1962

CAMPBELL             LAURENCE                                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

CANNY                   NICHOLAS JOSEPH                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1949

CARRICK                IAN GALBRAITH                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

CARVER                 JOHN HENRY                                     PH.D                                 1965

CASSIDY                ROBYN ANNE                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

CATCHPOOLE       JOHN ROGER                                     B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1953 1964

CATFORD               WILTON NEIL                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

CAVENETT             BRIAN CLIFFORD                              B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1965

CAWTHRON           EDWARD ROBERT                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

CHAMBERLAIN     MALCOLM TREVOR                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

CHAPMAN              ROBERT WILLIAM                             M. A                                 1889

CHAPPLE                ALFRED                                               B.SC                                 1894

CHAPPLE                PHOEBE                                              B.SC                                 1898

CHAPPLE                FREDERICK JOHN                             B.SC                                 1891

CHARTRES             BRUCE AYLWIN                                B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1951 1953

CIAMPA                  DOMINIC                                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

CLANCY                 MICHAEL CHARLES                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1972

CLARK                    EDWARD VINCENT                           B.SC                                 1895

CLENDINNEN        IAN JEFFREY                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1952

CLOSE                     RONALD WILKINSON                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1929

COCKS                    TERRY DOUGLAS                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

COLMAN                PETER MALCOLM                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1970

COLVILLE               JOHN STUART                                    B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1950 1956

COMLEY                 CHARLES HERBERT                         B.SC                                 1910

COOKE                    WILLIAM ERNEST                             M.A                                 1889

CORANI                  CLAIRE                                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

CORBIN                  HUGH BURTON                                  B. SC                                 1892

COTTRELL             PETER LEDSAM                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

COVENTRY            CAMERON HILDER                           B.SC                                 1900

COWLEY                 JOHN MAXWELL                               B.SC(HONS) M.SC D.SC 1943 1945 1957

COX                         DAVID WILLIAM                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1936

CRAIG                     RONALD LEEDSMAN                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

CREASER               ROGER PHILLIP                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

CROMPTON           ROBERT WOODHOUSE                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1949 1954

CROUCH                 STEPHEN JOHN                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

CROUCH                 PHILLIP CHARLES                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1973 1981

CROUCHLEY          JIM                                                       M.SC                                 1945







SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


CROWLEY              MARY ESTELLE                                 B.SC                                 1951

CUNDY                   SUSAN MARY                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

CUNNINGHAM      ROBERT JOHN                                   B.Sc.                                 1972

CUTTEN                  DEAN ROBERT                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1964 1969

DALE                       ALAN GEORGE                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

DANCER                 ROBERT FREDERICK                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

DARWIN                 LISLE JULIUS                                      B.A                                 1905

DAVEY                    ROYCE CHRISTOPHER                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

DAVIES                   IAN MALCOLM                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

DAVIES                   RODNEY DEANE                               B.SC(HONS) M.Sc                                 1951 1953

DAVIS                     LESLEY ANNE                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 l972 1982

DAVIS                     RONALD LINDSAY                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

DAW                        FRANCIS ALAN                                  B.SC                                 1945

DAWSON                BRUCE ROBERT                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

DELAND                 RAYMOND JAMES                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1949

DENBY                    ERNEST FRANK                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1952

DENNIS                   EDWIN                                                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1951 1967

DENNISON             PAUL ANTHONY                                PH.D                                 1968

DENTON                 ROBIN ERIC                                        B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1973

DICKSOIN               RONALD STANLEY                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1959 1963

DINGLE                   RODERICK EDWARD                        B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1964 1970

DOBNEY                 PHILLIP THOMAS                              B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1962 1970

DODWELL              GEORGE FREDERICK                       B.A                                 1905

DONALDSON         ARTHUR                                              B.A                                 1881

DOOLETTE             ASHLEY GRANT                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1978

DOOLETTE             DENNIS PHILLIP                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

DORNWELL            EDITH EMILY                                     B.SC                                 1885

DOUGHTY              CHRISTOPHER JOHN                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

DOWLING               DEAN ROBERT                                  B.SC                                 1962

DOYLE                    ELIZABETH MARGARET                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1964 1969

DREW                      JCHN FRANCIS                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

DUFFIELD               WALTER GEOFFREY                        B.SC D.SC                                 1900 1908

DUNCAN                 ROBERT ALLEN                                 B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1952 1965

DURANCE              GEOFFREY                                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

DURDIN                  JOHN MACGREGOR                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

EDGAR                    ROBERT STEEL                                  M.SC                                 1945

EDWARDS              PHILIP GLEN                                       B.SC                                 1958

EDWARDS              MICHAEL FRANCIS                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

EDWARDS              PHILLIP GREGORY                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

EDWARDS              PAUL JULIAN                                      PH.D                                 1965

EKERS                     RONALD DAVID                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1963

ELFORD                  MALCOLM THOMAS                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1954 1958

ELFORD                  WILLIAM GRAHAM                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1949 1955

ELLIS                       BRIAN DAVID                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1951

ELTON                    STEPHEN DENNIS                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

ERICSON                LEON GORDON                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1956 1959

EY                            CHRISTOPHER MAURICE                B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

FABIAN                   WERNER                                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1972

FARMER                 ANTHONY JOHN DOUGLAS            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1970

FARR                       CLINTON COLERIDGE                      B.SC D.Sc                                 1888 1902

FAZZALARI            NICHOLA LORENZO                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

FELGATE                DAVID GORDON                                B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1970

FERGUSSON          IAN CHARLES STEWART                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1973

FIEBIG                     MERRILYN JOY                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

FIELD                      DONALD WILLIAM                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1973

FLETCHER             JOHN                                                    PH. D                                 1966

FONG                      LIAN HERN                                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1962 1968

FORD                       JOHN MACKAY                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

FRANCIS                 ROBERT JOHN                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1960






SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                  CONF


FREUND                  JOHN TERENCE                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

FRY                         ROBERT MASON                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1949

FULLER                   GEORGE RAYNER                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1924

FULLGRABE           KYM ANTHONY                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

FURNESS                IAN WARREN                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

GAFFNEY               ROBERT DENIS                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

GAMBLING            DAVID JOHN                                      B.SC(HONS) M.SC PH.D                                  1964 1967 197I

GARDNER              JAMES LAURIE                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1971

GARDNER              KEVIN JOHN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

GARTRELL             GRANT                                                B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1972

GEMMELL              DONALD STEWART                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1956

GEORGE                 BARBARA KAY                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1958

GEORGE                 PETER LESLIE                                    M.SC                                 1969

GERHARDY           PETER RONALD                                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1977 1984

GERLACH               RODNEY VERNON                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

GIBBERD                WILLIAM OBED                                 B.SC M.SC                                 1939 1945

GIBBS                      STUART GEOFFREY                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

GIBSON                   STEPHEN THOMAS                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1979 1984

GIES                        HANS PETER FREIDRICH                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1974 1980

GIGNEY                  DAVID ALBERT MORRIS                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1972 1981

GLASSON               JOSEPH LESLIE                                  B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1908 1912

GOLLEY                  MALCOLM GEORGE                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1971

GOODEN                 JOHN STANLEY                                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1941 1945

GOODEN                 JOHN ERNEST ALFRED                    B.SC                                 1955 1958

GOODWIN              GEOFFREY LEONARD                      B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1952 1959

GOODWIN              ROBERT DOUGLAS                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1973

GOONAN                PAMELA JOY                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

GOUGH                   PAUL LANCELOT                               B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1972

GOYDER                 ALEXANDER WOODROFFE             B.SC                                 1889

GRADY                   BETTY GRACE                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

GRAHAM                LANCE ARTHUR                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1957

GRANT                    COLIN KERR                                       B.SC                                 1931

GRANT                    KERR                                                   B.SC                                 1911

GREGORY              ALAN GOWER                                    PH.D                                 1967

GREVINS                JURIS                                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

GRIERSMITH         DAVID                                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

GRIFFIN                  DONALD WARD                                 PH.D                                 1966

GRIMBELL              GORDON STUART                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

GROTH                    MICHAEL JOHN                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

GROVES                  JAMES MARK                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

GUBBAY                 JACOB SAMUEL                                 PH.D                                 1970

GUINAND               ANDREW PAUL                                  B.SC                                 1932

GUM                        COLIN STANLEY                               B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1949 1951

GURR                      GRAHAM EDWARD                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1957 1962

HADDAD                GERALD NEIL                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1968

HALE                       ROBERT PALMER                              B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1956 1966

HALL                       BARBARA ISABELLE HERBERT     B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1953 1956

HAMILTON             DAVID JAMES                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

HANSBERRY         MARY ESTELLE                                 B.SC                                 1951

HARRIES                JOHN ROBATHAN                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1964 1969

HARRIS                   BRIAN ALEC                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

HARRIS                   ROBERT WAYNE                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

HART                      DENNIS NEIL                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

HARWOOD             KEITH                                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1976

HASLAM                 JOSEPH AUBURN                               B.SC                                 1892

HAYCRAFT            EDITH FLORENCE                             B.SC                                 1890

HAYTHORPE         ALAN DAVID                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

HEADING               KEITH EDWARD GEORGE               B.SC                                 1930

HENNESSY             MICHAEL JOSEPH                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1981






SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


HERRAMAN           RICHARD ANTON                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

HIRSCH                   ERNEST HERMANN                          M.SC                                 1965

HOBBS                    TREVOR IAN                                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1974 1980

HOCKING               WAYNE KEITH                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1977 1981

HOLDEN                 EDWARD WHEEWELL                      B.SC                                 1905

HOLMES                 NIGEL ERIC                                        B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1970 1975

HOLMES                 JOHN WINSPERE                               M.SC                                 1955

HOLYWELL            KEITH HAROLD                                 M.SC                                 1959

HOOPER                 ANDREW WESLEY                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1968

HORSFALL             LAURENCE MICHAEL                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

HORTON                 BRIAN HENRY                                   PH.D                                 1969

HORTON                 MALCOLM IAN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

HOUSE                    ANTHONY JOHN EDMUND              B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

HUNT                      BARRIE GEORGE                               M.SC                                 1966

HURST                    ELINOR MARY                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

HUTTON                 JENNIFER MYRA                               B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1973 1982

HUXLEY                 LEONARD GEORGE HOLDEN          PH.D                                 1950

ILIFFE                      MICHAEL ISAAC GLOVER               B.SC(HONS)                                 1934

ILYAS                      MOHAMMED                                      PH.D                                 1977

IRVING                    ELIZABETH ANNE                             M.SC                                 1954

ISLAM                     ANOARA                                             PH. D                                 1980

JACOB                     PETER GORDON                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

JAMES                     ALAN TRELEVEN                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1944

JAUNCEY               GEORGE ERIC MACDONNELL        B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1912 1922

JELAVIC                  ANNE‑MARIE                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

JENKIN                   JOHN GRENFELL                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1961

JENSEN                   HANS ERHARD                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1977 1982

JOLLY                     NORMAN WILLIAM                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1901

JONES                     ALEXANDER LEWIS                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

JONES                     NORMAN PHILLIP                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

JORY                       RODNEY LEONARD                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

KALISZEWSKI       ANTONI BOGUMIL                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

KAMMER                MONICA VIVIENNE                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1962

KAMPROD              JANICE LEE                                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

KEATS                    REYNOLD GILBERT                          B.SC                                 1948

KEEVES                  JOHN PHILIP                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1947

KEMPSER               CHARLES JOHN EDGAR                   PH.D                                 1960

KHAWAJA              EHSAN ELLAHI                                  PH.D                                 1975

KIDMAN                 BARBARA PHYLLIS                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1949 1956

KILLEEN                 NEIL EDWARD BEAUCHAMP          B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

KLEEMAN              RICHARD DANIEL                             B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1905 1908

KOBELT                  ROBERT JOHN                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

KOERBER               BRIAN WALTER                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1957

KOHLHAGEN         MYRA AUDREY                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1956

KOVENDY              ANDREW ZOLTAN                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

KUHLMANN           JIM DOUGLAS                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

KUMAR                   VIJAY                                                   PH.D                                 1970

LAMB                      HORACE                                              M.A                                 1877

LANG                      GRAHAM BRUCE                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1959

LAWRANCE           ROBERT                                              M.SC PH. D                                 1958 1965

LE MESSURIER      THOMAS ABRAM                              B.SC                                 1893

LEAN                       JUDITH LESLEY                                 PH.D                                 1982

LEE                          STEPHEN MARK                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

LEIGH-JONES        PETER                                                  PH.D                                 1972

LEWIS                     BRIAN MURRAY                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

LEWIS                     BRENTON RAYMOND                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1973

LIDDIARD               KEVIN CHARLE                                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1965 1975

LIDDLE                   PETER FRANCIS                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

LIDDY                     DESMOND TERENCE                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1951





SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                  CONF


LIEBING                  DAVID FRANK                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1977 1984

LILLYWHITE          JOHN WILSON                                    B.SC                                 1936

LILLYWHITE          CUTHBERT                                         B.SC                                 1899

LIM                          KIM CHOO MARGARET                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

LIM                          HENG WAH                                         B.SC                                 1966

LIM                          SENG GUAN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

LINDEMANS          WILLEM                                               B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1971 1982

LINDNER                BERNARD CRAWFORD                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1969 1974

LIOUTAS                 NICK                                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1982

LITTLE                    ROWLAND EDMUND                        M.SC                                 1966

LOCKEY                 GEORGE WILLIAM ALBERT            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1973

LOHMANN             BIRGIT                                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

LOKAN                    KEITH HENRY                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1955

LOWER                   JULIAN CHARLES ANDRE               B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

LOWKE                   JOHN JAMES                                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1956 1963

LUCAS                     ROBERT MICHAEL                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

MACKENZIE          EUAN CHISHOLM                              PH.D                                 1967

MACKLIN               WILLIAM CHARLES                          B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1953 1956

MACK                     HANS HAMILTON                              B.A                                 1880

MACLEOD              RODERICK IAN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

MADSEN                 JOHN PERCIVAL VISSING                B.SC D.SC                                 1901 1907

MAHONEY             ALLAN ROBERT                                M.SC                                 1971

MAINSTONE          JOHN SYDNEY                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1955 1959

MANSBRIDGE       HAROLD EDGAR                               B.SC M.SC                                 1949 1960

MARRIAGE            ALLAN JOHN                                      M.SC                                 1965

MARTIN                  RODNEY JOHN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1978

MARTIN                  LESLIE HAROLD                                D.SC                                 1967

MARTIN                  BYRON THOMAS                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1982

MASSEY                 HARRIE STEWART WILSON            D.SC                                 1974

MATERNE              MYRA AUDREY                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1956

MATHER                 KEITH BENSON                                 M.SC                                 1944

MATHEWS             JOHN HUGH                                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1963

SWENSEN               EVELYN MAIME                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1958

MATTHEWS           BRIAN WESLEY                                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1964

MAYFIELD             JOHN MAXWELL                               B.SC                                 1958

MAY                        PETER THOMAS                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1982

MAYNARD             ROBERT KEITH                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1962

MAYNARD             DONALD ARTHUR SCOTT               B.SC                                 1938

MCAVANEY           BRYANT JOHN                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1971

MCCARTHY           IAN ELLERY                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1953

MCCOY                   DONALD GEORGE                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1967

MCCRACKEN        KENNETH GORDON                          D.SC                                 1971

MCDONALD           DONALD MALCOLM                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1973 1982

MCDONNELL         THOMAS PETER                                B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1972

MCDONOUGH        MARY-ANNE                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

MCGEE                   COLIN RAYMOND                             B.SC(HONS) M.SC PH.D                                 1954 1963 1971

MCGRATH H          DAVID NEIL                                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

MCGREGOR           PETER JOHN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

MCKELVIE             DONALD                                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1954

MCLEAN                 IAN WEYMOUTH                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1954

MCLEOD                 KATHRYN MARY                              B.SC                                 1977

MCPHERSON         ALEXANDER OWEN                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1928

MEDLIN                  EDWIN HARRY                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1951 1956

MEIGHEN               PHILLIP JOHN                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

MENA                      MENAS ANTONIOS                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

MENZIES                NICHOLAS CHARLES                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

MERCER                 EDGAR HOWARD                              B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1937 1960

METCHNIK             VICTOR IVOR                                     PH.D                                 1963

MICKAN                 ERWIN LAURENCE                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1957






SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                  CONF


MILES                      PERRY AMBROSE                             B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1950 1951

MILLAR                   GEOFFREY LLOYD                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

MILLER                   RAYMOND ORLANDO MAURICE   B.A                                 1905

MILLS                      GRAHAM ALAN                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

MILTON                  BERNARD ERIC                                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1954 1959

MITCHELL              PETER                                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1966

MITCHELL              IAN VAUGHAN                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

MITTON                  RONALD GLADSTONE                     B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1926 1928

MIZON                     ERROL ALFRED                                 B.SC                                 1948

MORLAND              ANTHONY MICHAEL                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

MORROW               RICHARD                                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1966

MOYSE                   JOHN STOWARD                               B.A                                 1905

MUMME                  WILLIAM GUSTAV                             M.SC PH.D                                 1959 1964

MURPHY                 DAMIAN JOHN                                   B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1983 1985

MURRAY                ERIC LIONEL                                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1954 1962

MYSIOR                  FRANCES                                            B.SC                                 1952

NAGORCKA           BARRY NEWELL                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

NANKIVELL           JOSEPH FRANK                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1948

NIELSEN                 IAN RONALD                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

NIETZ                      HERBERT WALTER                           B.SC                                 1921

NILSSON                 CARL SIGURD                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1959 1965

NITSCHTKE           PHILLIP HAIG                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

NOGARE                 RONALD RAPHAEL DALLE             B.SC                                 1953

NOWICKI                STANISLAW ZYGMUNT                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

NUGENT                 KEITH ALEXANDER                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

O'BRIEN                  CHRIS                                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

O'BRIEN                  RICHARD SEARCEY                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1974

O'CONNOR             GRAHAM GEOFFREY                       B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1974

ODAM                     KEITH BRIAN                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

OLIPHANT              MICHAEL JOHN                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

OLIPHANT              MARCUS LAWRENCE ELWIN          B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1923 1969

OLLINO                   RICHARD                                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1958

OLSEN                     JOHN ERIC                                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

OPHEL                     TREVOR RICHARD                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1955

ORELL                     TADZIU DENIS                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

PADDICK                ANTHONY WILLIAM                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1961

PAGE                       NECIA JOY                                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

PALMEN                 BROR TORBJORN                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

PALMER                 JOHN EDWARD                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

PALMER                 IAN DEXTER                                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1971

PANIZZA                 MARK PETER                                     B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1981 1985

PARHAM                RICHARD TREVOR                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1969 1982

PARKER                  MURRAY HAROLD                            B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1951 1952

PARKIN                   IAN ANDREW                                     B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1962 1968

PATON                    DORA ISABELLE                                B.SC                                 1902

PATON                    ALFRED MAURICE                            B.SC                                 1898

PATRICK                ELAINE                                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

PATTERSON          JOHN RAYDEN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1963

PATTISON              JOHN EDWARD                                  M.SC                                 1972

PFITZNER               JULIAN PAUL                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

PHILLIPS                 ANDRE MICHAEL                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

PHILLIPS                 DONALD ANDREW                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

PORTLOCK             TREVOR JOHN                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

POTTS                     RENFREY BURNARD                        B.SC                                 1945

PRESCOTT             JOHN RUSSELL                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1945

PREST                     DAVID HARRIS                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1954

PRICE                      GEORGINA DAWN                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

PRICE                      TRAFFORD CONOR                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1958

PRIEST                    HERBERT JAMES                              B.SC                                 1902





SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


PROVIS                   DESMOND CHRISTOPHER               B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

RADOSLOVICH      EDWARD WILLIAM                           B.SC(HONS) M.SC D.SC                                 1950 1952 1968

RANCE                    GEORGE HOWE                                 B.SC                                 1935

RASHLEIGH           DAVID GRAHAM                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

RAYNER                 JAMES NIGEL                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

REID                        IAIN MURRAY                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1979 1985

REIMANN               ARNOLD LUEHRS                              B.SC(HONS) D.SC                                 1922 1935

RICEMAN               MARY STIRLING                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

RICEMAN               WILLIAM DAVID                                B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1967 1971

ROBERTSON          DAVID STIRLING                               B.SC PH.D                                 1941 1954

ROBERTSON          JAMES GORDON                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

ROBIN                     PERCY ANSELL                                 B.A                                 1880

ROBINSON             PETER JOHN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

ROBINSON             LAURENCE CHARLES                       M.SC                                 1959

ROGERS                  PAUL JOHN                                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

ROPER                    JOHN MCEWEN                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

ROPER                    ROBERT GEORGE                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1958 1963

ROSSITER               DEAN EDWARD                                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1970

SANDERCOCK       EDWARD ROBERT                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1968

SANDERS               JOHN VEYSEY                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1947

SCHUBERT             MARK THEODORE                            B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1966 1970

SEBESTYEN           MELINDA                                            B.SC                                 1986

SEPPELT                 BRIAN MAXWELL                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

SEXTON                  LEO FRANCIS                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

SHACKLEFORD     PETER RONALD JAMES                   B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1971 1979

SHAW                      PETER JOHN RANDALL                   B.SC                                 1949

SHEPLEY                ARTHUR RAYMOND                         B.SC                                 1923

SIGNORIELLO        GIOVANNI BATTISTA                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1978

SIMPSON                MICHAEL KENNETH                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1982

SIMPSON                PENELOPE MARGARET                   B.SC                                 1949

SLEE                        WALTER VERNON                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

SMEAT0N               STIRLING                                            B.A                                 1880

SMITH                     ROGER NEVILLE EARL                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

SMITH                     WILLIAM IRVING BERRY                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1941

SMITH                     JOHN WILTON                                    B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1954 1961

SMITH                     DAVID AITCHISON                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1962

SMITH                     BARNABY WHITMORE                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1979 1984

SMITH                     JACK EDWIN                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1947

SMITH                     HAROLD WHITMORE                       B.SC                                 1906

SMITH                     RAYMOND THOMAS                        B.SC                                 1932

SMITH                     JULIAN AUGUSTUS ROMAN            B.SC                                 1892

SPOONER               NIGEL ANTHONY                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

SPURR                     ROBERT THOMAS                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1949

STAIN                      CORBET WRIGHT                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

STEPHAN               LESLIE GEORGE                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1979

STEVENSON          DONALD GEORGE                             B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1950 1952

STEVENS                PHILIP JOHN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

STEWART               CRAIG GRANT                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

STEWART               IAN CHARLES FERGUSSON             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1973

STIRLING                ANDREW JOHN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1966

STONE                    BRIAN JAMES                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1968

STORM                    JOHN ROBERT                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

STUART                  NOEL HARRY                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1928

STUBBS                  THOMAS JOHN                                  B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1971 1975

STUCKEY               EDWARD JOSEPH                              B.SC                                 1895

STUCKEY               FRANCIS SEAVINGTON                   B.SC                                 1896

SUTTON                  DAVID JOHN                                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1949 1954

SWAN                      GEOFFREY IAN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

SYMONDS              JOHN LLOYD                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1945





SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


SYMONS                 GEOFFREY DAVID                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

TAN                         KAR FATT                                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

TAN                         SIEW KEE KITTY                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

TARRANT               JANICE MARIE                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

TAYLOR                 REGINALD MORTON                        B.SC M.SC                                 1951 1962

TAYLOR                 MALCOLM VICTOR                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

TAYLOR                 WILLIAM HALDANE                         B.SC                                 1956

TEAGUE                  PETER FLETCHER                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

TEAGUE                  BADEN CHAPMAN                            B.SC                                 1968

TEUBNER               PETER JOHN OSMOND                     B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1968

THEILE                    DAVID VICTOR                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

THOMAS                 LINDSAY                                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1968

THOMAS                 RICHARD MURISON                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1972

THOMAS                 JOHN ANGUS                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1950

THOMPSON            NORMAN                                            B.SC                                 1965

THOMPSON            ARTHUR MELVILLE                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1938

THOMPSON            THOMAS ALEXANDER                     B. SC                                 1896

THORNTON            GREGORY JOHN                                B. SC (HONS) PH. D                                 1976 1985

THUTUPALLI          GOPALA KRISHNA MURTY             PH.D                                 1977

THYER                    ROBERT FRANCIS                             B.SC                                 1932

TINDALL                 RONALD GRAHAM                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1957

TODD                      CHARLES                                            M.A                                 1886

TOMLIN                  STANLEY GORDON                          PH.D                                 1960

TONIN                     RENZO FRANCIS                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

TOOP                       ANDREW                                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1978

TOOZE                    MERVYN JOHN                                  B.SC                                 1947

TOROP                    LEE WALTER                                      PH.D                                 1968

TRELEAVEN          WALTER                                              B.SC                                 1893

TRETHEWIE           JOHN VERE                                         B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1967 1973

TROJANOWSKI     EDWARD                                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

TROWSE                 JAYNE ELIZABETH                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

TUCKER                  DAVID HAMILTON                            B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1967 1976

TUOHY                    IAN RONAYNE                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1972

TURNER                  KEVIN JAMES                                    PH.D                                 1956

TYSON                    ANGUS GORDON                               M.SC                                 1954

URCH                      IAN HAROLD                                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1968 1971

VAN DER. ZWAAG     PETER                                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

VEITCH,                  LINDSAY GARFIELD                         B.SC                                 1949

WAGNER                FRANZ WILLIAM                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1928

WAINWRIGHT       EDWARD HALEY                               B.SC                                 1883

WAITE                     PETER JOHN                                       B.SC                                 1962

WALKER                 ALAN                                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

WALKER                 DANIEL                                               B.SC                                 1887

WALTER                 BRYAN ROBERT                                B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1964 1970

WALTON                BRUCE ADRIAN                                 B.SC                                 1945

WARD                     BRUCE DONALD                                B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1972 1976

WARDILL                PAUL                                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1982

WARREN-SMITH     DAVID NOEL                                      M.SC                                 1980

WATKINS               BRENTON JOHN                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

WAUCHOPE           FREDERICK JOHN                             B.SC                                 1930

WAUGH                  ELIZABETH ANNE                             M.SC                                 1954

WEBB                      RAYLENE JOYCE                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

WEBBER                 BRIAN JOHN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

WEBSTER               BETTY LOUISE                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1963

WEIGOLD               ERICH                                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1959

WEISS                     ALAN AUSTIN                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1951 1955

WELLER                  THEO RUDOLPH                                B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1968 1972

WESTPHALEN       JOHN ARTHUR                                   B.SC                                 1950

WHEATLEY            FREDERICK WILLIAM                      B.SC D.SC                                 1890 1913






SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


WHEATON             RUSSELL NORMAN                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1953

WHILLAS                GEOFFREY FRENCH                         B.SC                                 1946

WHITE                     ROY EDWIN                                        PH.D                                 1969

WHITINGTON        BERTRAM                                           B.SC                                 1899

WIGG                       HUGH HIGHAM                                  B.SC                                 1964

WIGHT                    HUGH HUMPHREY                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1929 1962

WILKSCH                MICHAEL VINCENT                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

WILKSCH                PHILIP ANTHONY                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

WILLIAMS              GEOFFREY ROY                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

WILLIAMS              KEVIN GRAHAM                                B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1959 1970

WILLIAMS              KENNETH CHRISTOPHER                BSC(HONS)                                 1975

WILLIAMSON         GEOFFREY LEA                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1957

WILSON                  LUTHER ERNEST CROSBY              B.SC(HONS)                                 1926

WILTON                  JOHN RAYMOND                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1903

WISEMAN               MICHAEL                                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1968 1973

WIWATOWSKI       RYSZARD JOSEF                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1974

WOOLDRIDGE       ALAN FRANK                                     B.SC                                 1947

WORTHINGTON    CHARLES ROY                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1951 1956

WORTHLEY           BOYCE WILSON                                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1939 1944

YOUNG                   STUART ASHLEIGH                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1972 1981

ZADOROZNYJ        IVAN                                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

ZIESING                  GEORGE MURRAY                            B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1951 1952





SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


AMOS                      KENNETH ALBERT                           B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1965

ANSTIS                   GEOFFREY RICHARD                       PH.D                                 1976

ASENSTORFER      JOHN ANTHONY                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

BARKER                 ANTHONY ALFRED                          B.SC(HONS) M.SC PH.D                                 1962 1965 1969

BARNES                  ALAN JOHN                                        PH.D                                 1982

BELL                        PETER ALEXANDER                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1970 1975

BISHOP                   ROBERT RAYMOND                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

BISHOP                   GREGORY RAYMOND                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

BISWAS                  SAMENANDRA NATH                      PH.D                                 1958

BRACKEN              ANTHONY JOHN                               B.SC(HONS) PH. D                                 1966 1970

BRAY                      IGOR                                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

BREARLEY             MAURICE NORMAN                          PH.D                                 1958

BRIGGS                   KEITH MARTIN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

BROADBRIDGE     PHILLIP                                                B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1976 1983

BROOKE                 ANTHONY LACKINGTON                B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

BROOKER              PETER IAN                                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1970

BULBECK               ALAN RONALD                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

BURTMANIS          EGILS                                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

CAMBRELL            GREGORY KEITH                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

CAMPBELL             JOHN ARTHUR                                   B.SC(HONS)                                 1962

CANT                      ANTHONY                                          PH.D                                 1979

CAREY                    ALAN LAWRENCE                             M.SC                                 1974

CARTER                  COLIN LESLIE                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

CHAPPEL                MARK JOHN                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

CHUAH                   KIM LEONG                                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1960

CLAYTON               KYM ROBERT                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

CORBETT               JOHN VINCENT                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1961 1966

CULLINAN              MICHAEL CHARLE                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

CUNNINGHAM      ANDREW ALLAN                               PH.D                                 1968

DAINIS                    ANDREW                                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1963 1968

DAY                         ANDREW MORRISON                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

DODD                      TIM                                                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

DODD                      LINDSAY RICHARD                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1965

DUNNE                    GERALD VINCENT                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

EDWARDS              STEPHEN ANTHONY                        PH.D                                 1982

EDWARDS              ANDREW FRIEND                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1976

EVANS                    JAMES WILLIAM                                PH.D                                 1980

EY                            CHRISTOPHER MAURICE                PH.D                                 1980

FAULKNER             IAN PATRICK                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

FRANCEY               JOSEPH LOGAN AYRE                      M.SC                                 1963

FREDERIKSEN       JORGEN SEGERLUND                       B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

GAFFNEY               JANICE MARGARET                         B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1969 1975

GERRARD              PETER NORMAN                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

GIBBERD                ROBERT WILLIAM                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1968

GOULD                    MARK DAVID                                     B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1976 1980

GRAY                      DOUGLRS ANDREW                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1969 1974

GREEN                    HERBERT SYDNEY                           D.SC                                 1952

GRIGSON                CHRISTOPHER JAMES                      B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1971

GRIMM                    RAYMOND CLIFFORD                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1966

GRISOGONO          ANNE-MARIE                                     PH.D                                 1981

GROBLICKI            ROMAN MACIEJ                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

HARRIS                   ANDREW STEPHEN                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1973

HARTLEY               DAVID HOLMES                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

HASELGROVE       MAXWELL KEITH                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

HEADLAND            MICHAEL                                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

HEWITT                  JOHN SINCLAIR                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1971

HILDEBRANDT      JOHN WILLIAM                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

HINTON                  KERRY JAMES                                   B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1980 1982

HOSKING                ROGER JOHN                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1962





SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


HOUGH                   GERALDINE                                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

HURST                    CHARLES ANGAS                              PH.D                                 1959

IRVINE                    ROBERT DAVID                                 PH.D                                 1975

IVERSON                GEOFFREY JOHN                              B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1969

JAMES                     PETER ALAN                                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

JAMESON               IAIN JOHN                                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

JARVIS                    PETER DAVID                                    B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1973 1975

JOHNSTON             LINDSAY COLLINGE                         PH.D                                 1967

KERRISK                JOHN MICHAEL                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1966

KLAEBE                  KENNETH ERIC                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1961

KLEMM                   ANTHONY DESMOND                      B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

KRIPS                      HENRY PAUL                                     B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1966 1973

LEE                          GEOK ENG                                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

LIM                          KHAIK LEANG                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1965

LIM                          TECK KAH                                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1965 1969

LOHE                       MAX ADOLPH                                    B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1970 1975

LYSTER                  PETER MICHAEL                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

MARINOFF             GEORGE MICHAEL                           B.SC(HONS)                                 1969

MCCARTHY           JANE FRANCES                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

MCCARTHY           IAN ELLERY                                       PH.D                                 1956

MCDOWALL           BARRY PATRICK                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1956

MCFARLANE         ANTHONY RODERIC                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1966

MCLAUGHLIN        IAN LEONARD                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1966

MCLEOD                 NIGEL BRUCE                                    B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

MEATHERINGHAM    STEPHEN JOHN                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

MERNONE              ANACLETO                                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

MESSEL                  HARRY                                                PH.D                                 1952

MILLS                      RICHARD GRAHAM JOHN               B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1962 1968

MILNE                     GEOFFREY MAXWELL                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1964

MORGAN                FRANCIS HAMILTON                        B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1972 1977

MOSIUN                  MARTIN EDWARD                            B.SC(HONS)                                 1978

MOUNTFORD         GRAHAM CHARLES                          B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1964 1968

MURRRY                STEPHEN BURNIE                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

MYSAK                   LAWRENCE ALEXANDER                M.SC                                 1963

NIEUKERKE           KAJ                                                      PH.D                                 1981

NITSCHKE              IAN ATHOL                                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

NOGARE                 RONALD RAPHAEL DALLE             B.SC(HONS)                                 1955

0’BRIEN                  DENNIS MICHAEL                             B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1970 1976

PASSMORE            TIMOTHY JAMES                              B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

PELLEN                   ROBIN VICTOR                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1968

RANKIN                  JOHN ROBERT                                   PH.D                                 1978

RAUPACH               MICHAEL ROBIN                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1972

RAWINSKI              EDWARD                                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1978

READ                      JEFFREY MAXWELL                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1970

REDDECLIFFE       OWEN ANDREW                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

REEVES                  LEOPOLD HUGH DUNCAN               PH.D                                 1964

REINFELDS            JURIS                                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1959 1963

SEYMOUR              PATRICK WILLIAM                           PH.D                                 1965

SINCLAIR               DONALD KEITH                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1967

SINHARDY             MAHENDRA NATH                           PH.D                                 1982

SIZER                      TOM                                                     B.SC(HONS)                                 1977

SOBEY                    ANTHONY JAMES                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1975

STACEY                  ANDREW JAMES                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1981

STELBOVICS          ANDRIS TALIS                                   B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1970 1975

STORER                  ROBIN GEORGE                                 B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1960 1964

STROUD                  WILLIAM JOHN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

SVED                       MARTA                                                B.SC(HONS)                                 1956

SYMONDS              PHILLIP JEFFREY                              B.SC (HONS)                                 1964

TONG                      PEGGY                                                 B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1967 1969







SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


TUCKWELL            HENRY CLAVERING                         B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1965 1970

TWISK                     SIMON                                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1985

VACCARO              SAMUEL ROBERT                              PH.D                                 1980

VNUK                      JOSEPH DOMINIC:                             B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

WALSH                   ELEANOR WYNN                               B.SC(HONS)                                 1965

WHITE                     NEIL JOHN                                          B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1974 1979

WIGLEY                  TOM MICHAEL LAMPE                     B.SC(HONS) PH.D                                 1961 1968

WILKINSON           STEPHEN KIDMAN                            B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1982 1983

WILLIAMS              ANTHONY GORDON                         B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

WILMOT                 GREG PAUL                                        B.SC(HONS)                                 1984

WRIGHT                  JILL DIANNE                                       B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1975 1981

YARDLEY               NEALE                                                 B.SC(HONS)                                 1980

YEOMANS              FRANK EDWARD                              B.SC(HONS) M.SC                                 1962 1969

YIP                           BRANDON                                          B.SC(HONS)                                 1983

ZAINUDDIN            HISHAMUDDIN                                  B.SC(HONS)                                 1985







SURNAME              OTHER NAMES                                  DEGREES                                 CONF


BASEDOW              ROBERT WILLIAM                             PH.D                                 1978

BOWER                   ANTHONY RICHARD DAVID           PH.D                                 1975

CHAMBERLAIN     MALCOLM TREVOR                          PH.D                                 1978

COCKS                    TERRY DOUGLAS                              PH.D                                 1978

FRANCIS                 ROBERT JOHN                                   M.SC                                 1968

FREUND                  JOHN TERENCE                                 PH.D                                 1977

HEADLAND            MICHAEL                                            M.SC                                 1976

JAMES                     MAURICE KEITH                               PH.D                                 1972

KILFOYLE              BRIAN PATRICK                                M.SC                                 1970

SCHAEFFER           ROBERT CARL                                   PH.D                                 1970

WILKSCH                PHILIP ANTHONY                              PH.D                                 1976

YUAN FAN FU.      FREDERICK                                        PH.D                                 1971









Fellow of the Royal Society of London

Fellow of The Australian Academy of Science

1851 Exhibition and Rutherford Scholarships

The Angas Engineering Scholarships

David Sutton Memorial Prize

The John L. Young Scholarship

Philips Prize (Honours Level)

Rhodes Scholarship and

South Australian Scholarship








BRAGG, William Henry                                              1907










GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1954

HUXLEY, Leonard George Holden                             1954

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1972







(Previously known as Science Research Scholarship,

Exhibition of 1851 and Royal Commissioners for the

Exhibition of 1851.)


KLEEMAN, Richard Daniel                                        1905

GLASSON, Joseph Leslie                                            1909

JAUNCEY, George Eric Macdonnel                           1912

OLIPHANT, Marcus Lawrence Elwin                         1927

BOSWORTH, Richard Charles Leslie                         1933

HALL, Barbara Isabelle Herbert                                 1956

LOHE, Max Adolph                                                     1973

CANT, Anthony                                                           1978




FARR, Clinton Coleridge                                            1889

BIRKS, Laurence

CHAPPLE, Alfred               Equal                               1895

CLARK, Edward Vincent                                            1898

DUFFIELD, Walter Geoffrey                                       1901

SMITH, Harold Whitemore                                         1907

ANGWIN, Hugh Thomas Moffit                                  1911







EDWARDS, Phillip Gregory                                       1983

BAILES, Matthew                                                        1984

SCHOLZ, Timothy Theodore                                       1985




GUINAND, Andrew Paul                                            1933

ALLEN, William Douglas                                            1935

MERCER, Edgar Howard                                            1936

SMITH, William Irving Berry                                      1940

WRIGHT, Jill Dianne                                                  1974




HARRIES, John Robatban                                           1963

McAVANEY, Bryant John                                           1964

COLMAN, Peter Malcolm                                           1965

LEWIS, Brenton Raymond                                           1966

URCH, Ian Harald                                                        1967

PARHAM, Richard Trevor                                          1968

DURDIN, John MacGregor                                          1969

ROBERTSON, James Gordon

SHACKLEFORD, Peter Ronald James       Shared      1970







JOLLY, Norman William                                             1904

BROSE, Henry Leopold Adolph                                  1913

MITTON, Ronald Gladstone                                        1927

WAGNER, Franz William                                           1928

GUINAND, Andrew Paul                                            1934

ALLEN, William Douglas                                            1937

SEPPELT, Brian Maxwell                                           1961

WILKINSON, Stephen Kidman                                    1982




BEARE, Thomas Hudson                                             1879

ROBIN, Percy Ansell                                                   1880

DONALDSON, Arthur                                                 1882

COOKE, William Ernest                                              1883 (Scholarship waived)



















BRAGG, William Henry                                                       1886 - 1908

GRANT, Kerr (acting)                                                          1909 - 1910

                                                                                              1911 - 1948

HUXLEY, Leonard George Holden                                       1949 - 1959

TOMLIN, Stanley Gordon (acting)                                        1960

CARVER, John Henry                                                           1961 - 1972

PRESCOTT, John Russell                                                     1973



PRESCOTT, John Russell                                                     1974 - 1975

CARVER, John Henry                                                           1976 - 1978

ELFORD, William Graham                                                   1979 - 1985

PRESCOTT, John Russell                                                     1986 -



CARVER, John Henry                                                           1972 - 1975

SUTTON, David John                                                           1976 - 1978

BLAKE, Alistair Joseph                                                        1979 - 1983

THOMAS, Anthony William                                                 1984 -



BRAGG, William Henry                                                       18861 - 1908

GRANT, Kerr                                                                        1926 - 1948

HUXLEY, Leonard George Holden                                       1949 - 1959

CARVER, John Henry                                                           1961 - 1978

PRESCOTT, John Russell                                                     1983 -












LYLE, Thomas Rankine (visiting)                                         1898

GRANT, Kerr (acting)                                                          1909 - 1910

                                                                                              1911 ‑ 1925

PRIEST, Herbert James (acting)                                           1909

BRENNAN, Maxwell Howard                                             1964 - 1966

JACKA, Frederick John ("Cognate")                                    1965 -

McCRACKEN, Kenneth Gordon                                           1965 - 1969

PRESCOTT, John Russell                                                     1971 - 1982

THOMAS, Anthony William                                                 1984 -









GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1951 - 1964

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1965 - 1966

GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1967 - 1968

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1969 - 1970

GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1971 - 1972

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1973



HURST, Charles Angas                                               1974

GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1975 - 1976

DODD, Lindsay Richard                                              1976 - 1978

SZEKERES, Peter                                                        1979 - 1980

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1981 - 1982

GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1983 - 1984

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1985 - 1986



GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1974

DODD, Lindsay Richard                                              1975 - 1976

GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1977

SZEKERES, Peter                                                        1978

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1979 - 1980

GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1981 - 1982

DODD, Lindsay Richard                                              1983 - 1984

SZEKERES, Peter                                                        1985 - 1986



GREEN, Herbert Sydney                                             1951 -

HURST, Charles Angas                                               1964 -














JACKA, Frederick John                                               1965 -





SEYMOUR, Patrick William                                       1974 - 1977







FROM        TO              SURNAME                   OTHER NAMES                             SENIOR



1875           1885           LAMB                           HORACE                   *LABORATORY HEAD

1886           1909           BRAGG                        WILLIAM HENRY                          *ELDER PROFESSOR

1888           1907           CHAPMAN                  ROBERT WILLIAM                   *LECTURER

1895           1927           ROGERS                      ARTHUR LIONEL                          *LAB ASSISTANT

1898           1898           LYLE                            THOMAS RANKINE                   *VISITING PROFESSOR

1900           1901           ALLEN                         JAMES BERNARD                   *LECTURER

1901           1908           MADSEN                     JOHN PERCIVAL VISSING                   *LECTURER

1904           1906           KLEEMAN                   RICHARD DANIEL                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1907           1909           PRIEST                         HERBERT JAMES                          *ACTING PROFESSOR

1908           1909           GLASSON                    JOSEPH LESLIE                   *ASSISTANT LECTURER

1909           1946           GRANT                        KERR                                              *ELDER PROFESSOR

1918           1919           SCHNEIDER                WALTER HERMAN                   *ASSISTANT LECTURER

1918           1923           CLARK                         EDWARD VINCENT                   *LECTURER

1918           1919           HURST                         WALTER WILLIAM                   *ASSISTANT LECTURER

1922           1958           BURDON                      ROY STANLEY                   *READER

1924           1926           HONNOR                     JOHN MORTON                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1924           1924           NIETZ                           HERBERT WALTER                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1925           1963           FULLER                        GEORGE RAYNER                        *SENIOR LECTURER

1925           1927           STUART                       NOEL HARRY                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1926           1927           OLIPHANT                   MARCUS LAWRENCE ELWIN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1927           1928           WAGNER                     FRANZ WILLIAM                           *ASST DEMONSTRATOR

1927           1928           WAUCHOPE                FREDERICK JOHN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1928           1932           BOSWORTH                RICHARD CHARLES LESLIE                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1928           1929           WIGHT                         HUGH HUMPHREY                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1928           1928           YOUNG                        DONALD SCOTT                   *TUTORIAL ASSISTANT

1929           1975           ILIFFE                          MICHAEL ISAAC GLOVER          *SENIOR LECTURER

1929           1932           THYER                         ROBERT FRANCIS                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1933           1934           GUINAND                    ANDREW PAUL                             *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1933           1935           RANCE                         GEORGE HOWE                            *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1935           1937           ALLEN                         WILLIAM DOUGLAS                     *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1936           1936           COX                              DAVID WILLIAM                           *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1936           1938           MERCER                      EDGAR HOWARD                         *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1937           1938           LILLYWHITE               JOHN WILSON                               *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1937           1939           THOMPSON                ARTHUR MELVILLE                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1939           1950           BROOKE                      WILLIAM CHARLES ROBERT                   *LECTURER

1941           1961           AITCHISON                 GORDON JAMES                           *SENIOR LECTURER

1941           1941           WHILLAS                     JEOFFREY FRENCH                     *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1943           1945           CROUCHLEY              JIM                                                   *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1943           1945           EDGAR                        ROBERT STEEL                             *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1943           1946           MATHER                     KEITH BENSON                   *LECTURER

1944           1545           COWLEY                     JOHN MAXWELL                          *JR DEMONSTRATOR

1945           1945           SYMONDS                   JOHN LLOYD                   *RESEARCH ASSISTANT

1945           1948           TOOZE                         MERVYN JOHN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1950           WHITINGTON             BERTRAM                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1946           PRESCOTT                  JOHN RUSSELL                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1947           BUTLER                       STUART THOMAS                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1947           DAW                             FRANCIS ALAN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1946           KEEVES                       JOHN PHILIP                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1948           NANKIVELL                JOSEPH FRANK                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1946           SMITH                          JACK EDWIN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1946           1948           WALTON                     BRUCE ADRIAN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1947           1949           CANNY                        NICHOLAS JOSEPH                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1947           1960           CROMPTON                ROBERT WOODHOUSE                *SENIOR LECTURER

1947              -              ELFORD                       WILLIAM GRAHAM                   *READER

1947           1945           FRY                              ROBERT MASON                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1947           1948           WORTHLEY                BOYCE WILSON                            *P/T LECTURER

1948           1950           ZIESING                       GEORGE MURRAY                   *RESEARCH ASSISTANT

1948           1948           BOSHER                      VICTOR JAMES MARCEL            *P/T LECTURER

1946           1948           DELAND                      RAYMOND JAMES                   *DEMONSTRATOR





FROM        TO              SURNAME                   OTHER NAMES                             SENIOR



1949           1949           BARTLETT                  BRIAH MERVYN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1949           1959           HUXLEY                      LEONARD GEORGE HOLDEN     *ELDER PROFESSOR

1949           1949           STEVENSON               DONALD GEORGE                   WDEMONSTRFITOR

1949           1949           THOMAS                     JOHN ANGUS                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1949           1949           VEITCH                        LINDSAY GARFIELD                   *DENONSTRRTOR

1950           1951           DUNCRIN                    ROBERT ALLEN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1950           1950           SHAW                          PETER JOHN RANDALL                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1950           1980           SUTTON                       DAVID JOHN                   *READER

1950           1981           TOMLIN                       STANLEY GORDON                   *READER

1951           1951           BLIGHT                        JOHN MALCOLM                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1951           1951           ALDERSEY                  ALGERNON LUMLEY HAYDON                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1951           1951           ELLIS                            BRIAN DAVID                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1951           1951           HALL                            BARBARA ISABELLE HERBERT                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1951                             MEDLIN                       EDWIN HARRY                        *READER

1952           1953           MCLEAN                      IAN WEYMOUTH                          *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1952           1952           NOGARE                      RONALD RAPHAEL DALLE         *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1952           1953           SMITH                          JOHN WILTON                               *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1953           1953           HALE                            ROBERT PALMER                         *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1954           1955           ERICSON                     LEON GORDON                             *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1954           1954           HASLAM                      DENISE ALLISON                          *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1955           1955           GUM                             COLIN STANLEY                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1955           1955           TAYLOR                      WILLIAM HALDANE                     *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1956           1956           BAGOT                        CHARLES HERVEY                       *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1956           1963           DOWLING                    DEAN ROBERT                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1956           1958           ROPER                         ROBERT GEORGE                   *DENONSTRATOR

1957           1961           METCHNIK                 VICTOR IVOR                                *SR DEMONSTRATOR

1958           1959           MCGEE                        COLIN RAYMOND                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1959                             BEVAN                         ARTHUR REGINALD                    *SENIOR LECTURER

1959           1967           KEMPSTER                 CHARLES JOHN EDGAR                   *LECTURER

1959           1969           LAWRANCE                ROBERT                                         *SENIOR LECTURER

1960                             ERICSON                     LEON GORDON                             *SENIOR LECTURER

1960           1961           WHITE                         ROY EDWIN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1961           1971           BASTIAN                     ALAN CHARLTON                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1961           1978           CARVER                      JOHN HENRY                                *ELDER PROFESSOR

1962           1962           BELL                            ROGER ALISTAIR                   *LECTURER

1962           1984           BRIGGS                        BASIL HUGH                   *READER

1962           1964           CATCHPOOLE            JOHN ROGER                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1962           1966           MURRAY                     ERIC LIONEL                   *LECTURER

1962           1962           SMITH                          DAVID AITCHISON                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1963           1963           CAMPBELL                 ROBERT DEAN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1963           1984           HORTON                      BRIAN HENRY                              *SENlOR LECTURER

1963           1965           WEIGOLD                    ERICH                   *LECTURER

1964           1964           BURROWS                   KEITH                   *LECTURER

1964           1966           BRENNAN                   MAXWELL HOWARD                   *PROFESSOR

1964           1967           EDWARDS                   PAUL JULIAN                   *LECTURER

1964                              GREGORY                   ALAN GOWER                               *SENIOR LECTURER

1964           1965           MERRY                        RAYMOND WAYNE                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1964           1964           WILKSCH                    MICHAEL VINCENT                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1965                             JACKA                         FREDERICK JOHN                        *'COGNATE' PROFESSOR

1965           1966           FLETCHER                  JOHN                   *LECTURER

1965           1967           LOKAN                        KEITH HENRY                               *SENIOR LECTURER

1965                             MACKENZIE               EUAN CHISHOLM                         *SENIOR LECTURER

1965           1969           MCCRACKEN             KENNETH GORDON                   *PROFESSOR

1965           1968           WALTER                      BRYAN ROBERT                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1966           1971           GARTRELL                  GRANT                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1966           1967           GOUGH                        PAUL LANCELOT                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1966                             MCCOY                        DONALD GEORGE                        *SENIOR LECTURER

1966           1967           MITCHELL                   PETER                                             *TEMP LECTURER

1967           1973           DENNISON                  PAUL ANTHONY                   *LECTURER





FROM        TO              SURNAME                   OTHER NAMES                             SENIOR



1967           1967           HADDAD                     GERALD NEIL                                *TEMP LECTURER

1967                             TOROP                         LEE WALTER                                 *SENIOR LECTURER

1968           1971           BARTUSEK                 KAREL                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1968           1969           NILSSON                      CARL SIGURD                   *LECTURER

1968                             PATTERSON               JOHN RAYDEN                              *SENIOR LECTURER

1969           1971           BUCKLEY                    RICHARD                                       *P/T LECTURER

1969           1969           BUTTERFIELD            ANTHONY WILLIAM                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1970           1971           DAVISON                     PETER JAMES NEIL                      *TEMP LECTURER

1970                             BLAKE                         ALISTAIR JOSEPH                        *READER

1970           1971           SMITH                          ROGER NEVILLE EARL                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1971           1972           FABIAN                       WERNER                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1971           1974           LEWIS                          BRENTON RAYMOND                   *TEACHING FELLOW

1971                             PRESCOTT                  JOHN RUSSELL                             *ELDER PROFESSOR

1972           1972           BROWN                       NICHOLAS                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1972           1974           O’BRIEN                      RICHARD SEARCEY                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1973           1973           BOWER                        ANTHONY RICHARD DAVID                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1973           1973           BOHM                          ROBERT ROMAN                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1973           1973           LINDNER                     BERNARD CRAWFORD                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1974                             CLAY                           ROGER WILLIAM                          *SENIOR LECTURER

1974           1975           FIELD                           DONALD WILLIAM                       *SR TEACHING FELLOW

1974           1974           HOLMES                      NIGEL ERIC                   *DEMONSTRATOR

1974           1977           STUBBS                       THOMAS JOHN                             *SR TEACHING FELLOW

1974                             VINCENT                     ROBERT ALAN                        *READER

1975           1977           BIBBO                          GIOVANNI                                      *TUTOR

1975           1975           CHAMBERLAIN          MALCOLM TREVOR                     *TUTOR

1975           1978           LINDEMANS               WILLEM                                          *TUTOR

1976           1976           ILYAS                           MOHAMMED                                 *TUTOR

1977           1979           GIGNEY                       DAVID ALBERT MORRIS             *TUTOR

1978           1979           HOBBS                         TREVOR IAN                                  *TUTOR

1979                             ROBERTSON               GILLIAN BARNARD                      *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1979                             JOHNSON                    EDWIN RICHARD                          *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1979           1979           YOUNG                        STUART ASHLEIGH                      *TUTOR

1980           1984           THORNTON                GREGORY JOHN                           *TUTOR

1980                             ROBERTSON               DAVID STIRLING                          *P/T DEMONSTRATOR

1980           1982           WILKSCH                    PHILLIP ANTHONY                       *TUTOR

1981           1981           PARHAM                     RICHARD TREVOR                       *P/T LECTURER

1981           1984           CRAIG                          RONALD LEEDSMAN                   *TUTOR

1982                             HIRSCH                        ERNEST HERMANN                     *VIS RESEARCH FELLOW

1983                             HOCKING                    WAYNE KEITH                        *LECTURER

1983                             PROTHEROE               RAYMOND JOHN                          *P/T LECTURER

1983                             HUTTON                      JOHN THOMAS                             *VIS RESEARCH FELLOW

1983           1983           GRISOGONO               ANNE‑MARIE                                *TUTOR

1983                             POLLARD                    JUDITH MARY                               *P/T LECTURER

1983           1983           CAMPBELL                 LAURENCE                                    *TUTOR

1984                             THOMAS                     ANTHONY WILLIAM                        *PROFESSOR

1985                              BRIGGS                        KEITH MARTIN                             *TUTOR

1985                             WARDILL                    PAUL                                               *TUTOR

1985                             CREWTHER                RODNEY JAMES                        *LECTURER




FROM        TO              SURNAME                   OTHER NAMES                             SENIOR



1951           1953           MESSEL                       HARRY                                           *SENIOR LECTURER

1951           1985           GREEN                         HERBERT SYDNEY                   *PROFESSOR

1952           1953           BERGMANN                CTTO                                               *TEMP LECTURER

1954           1955           WARD                          JOHN CLIVE                                   *SENIOR LECTURER

1957                             HURST                         CHARLES ANGAS                        *PROFESSOR

1960           1963           MCCARTHY                IAN ELLERY                   *LECTURER

1963           1968           SEYMOUR                   PATRICK WILLIAM                   *READER

1966           1969           COHEN                        HARVEY A.                                    *TEMP LECTURER

1968                             DODD                           LINDSAY RICHARD                        *READER

1971                             SZEKERES                   PETER                                             *SENIOR LECTURER







FROM        TO              SURNAME                   OTHER NAMES                             SENIOR




1965                             JACKA                         FREDERICK JOHN                        *DIRECTOR

1967                             CREIGHTON               DONALD FRANCIS                        *ENGINEER

1969           1977           SEYMOUR                   PATRICK WILLIAM                   *READER

1978           1981           REID                             IVAN DONALD                              *POST DOCORATE FELLOW