Abstracts of Interest

Selected by: Jose Bellido

Abstract: 1807.06001
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Title: A Statistical Study to Determine the Origin of Long-Duration Gamma-ray Flares

Abstract: Two scenarios have been proposed to account for sustained $\ge 30$\,MeV gamma-ray emission in solar flares: (1) prolonged particle acceleration/trapping involving large-scale magnetic loops at the flare site, and (2) precipitation of high-energy ($>$ 300 MeV) protons accelerated at coronal/interplanetary shock waves. To determine which of these scenarios is more likely, we examine the associated soft X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic proton events (SEPs) for: (a) the long-duration gamma-ray flares (LDGRFs) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on \Fermi, and (b) delayed and/or spatially-extended high-energy gamma-ray flares observed by the Gamma-ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission, the Gamma-1 telescope on the Gamma satellite, and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. For the \Fermi data set of 11 LDGRFs with $>$100 MeV emission lasting for $\ge \sim 2$ hours, we search for associations and reverse associations between LDGRFs, X-ray flares, CMEs, and SEPs, i.e., beginning with the gamma-ray flares and also, in turn, with X-class soft X-ray flares, fast ($\ge$ 1500 km s$^{-1}$) and wide CMEs, and intense (peak flux $\ge 2.67 \times 10^{-3}$ protons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$, with peak to background ratio $>$ 1.38) $>$ 300 MeV SEPs at 1 A.U. While LDGRFs tend to be associated with bright X-class flares, we find that only 1/3 of the X-class flares during the time of \Fermi monitoring coincide with an LDGRF. However, nearly all fast, wide CMEs are associated with an LDGRF. These preliminary association analyses favor the proton precipitation scenario, although there is a prominent counter-example of a potentially magnetically well-connected solar eruption with $>$ 100 MeV emission for $\sim 10$ h for which the near-Earth $>$ 300 MeV proton intensity did not rise above background.

Comments: accepted in the Astrophysical Journal

Abstract: 1807.05210
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Title: Active galactic nuclei with GeV activities and the PeV neutrino source candidate TXS 0506+056

Abstract: On 2017 September 22 the IceCube neutrino observatory detected a track-like, very-high-energy event (IceCube-170922A) that is spatially associated with TXS 0506+056, a quasar at a redshift of $z=0.3365$. This source is characterized by the increased acitivies in a very wide energy range (from radio to TeV) during these days. To investigate the possible connection of the PeV neutrino emission with the GeV activity of blazars, in this work we select 116 bright sources and analyze their lightcurves and spectra. We focus on the sources displaying GeV activities. Among these blazars, TXS 0506+056 seems to be typical in many aspects but is distinguished by the very strong GeV activties. We suggest to search for neutrino outburst in the historical data of IceCube, as recently done for TXS 0506+056, from the directions of these more energetic and harder blazars with strong GeV activities.

Comments: 23 pages, 8 figures, 1 table

Abstract: 1807.05201
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Title: Constraints on differential Shapiro delay violations between neutrinos and photons from IceCube-170922A

Abstract: On 22nd Sept. 2017, the IceCube Collaboration detected a neutrino with energy of about 290 TeV from the direction of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056, located at a distance of about 1.4 Gpc. During the same time, enhanced gamma-ray flaring was also simultaneously detected from multiple telescopes, giving rise to only the second coincident astrophysical neutrino/photon observation after SN 1987A. We point out that for this event, both neutrinos and photons encountered a Shapiro delay of about 3600 days along the way from the source.
From this delay and assuming a relative time difference of one second between the neutrino and photon arrival times, one can constrain violations of Einstein's Weak equivalence principle (WEP) for TeV neutrinos. We constrain such violations of WEP using the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter $\Delta \gamma$, and is given by $|\gamma_{\rm {\nu}}-\gamma_{\rm{EM}}|<6.4 \times 10^{-9}$.

Comments: 3 pages

Abstract: 1807.05170
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Title: On Possibility of Determining Neutrino Mass Hierarchy by the Charged-Current and Neutral-Current Events of Supernova Neutrinos in Scintillation Detectors

Abstract: One of the unresolved mysteries in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. We present a new method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the events of inverse beta decays (IBD), $\bar{\nu}_e + p\rightarrow n + e^+$, and neutral current (NC) interactions, $\nu(\overline{\nu}) + p\rightarrow\nu(\overline{\nu}) + p$, of supernova neutrinos from accretion and cooling phases in scintillation detectors. Supernova neutrino flavor conversions depend on the neutrino mass hierarchy. On account of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux with the $\bar{\nu}_x$ ($x=\mu,~\tau$) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. In consequence, the ratio of high energy IBD events to NC events for the inverted hierarchy is higher than in the normal hierarchy. Since the luminosity of $\bar{\nu}_e$ is larger than that of $\nu_x$ in accretion phase while the luminosity of $\bar{\nu}_e$ becomes smaller than that of $\nu_x$ in cooling phase, we calculate this ratio for both accretion and cooling phases. By analyzing the change of this event ratio from accretion phase to cooling phase, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

Comments: one column, 16 pages, 2 figures

Abstract: 1807.05155
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Title: Limits on Neutrino Lorentz Violation from Multimessenger Observations of TXS 0506+056

Abstract: The observation by the IceCube Collaboration of a high-energy ($E \gtrsim 200$ TeV) neutrino from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 and the coincident observations of enhanced $\gamma$-ray emissions from the same object by MAGIC and other experiments can be used to set stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in the propagation of neutrinos that is linear in the neutrino energy: $\Delta v = - E/M_1$, where $\Delta v$ is the deviation from the velocity of light, and $M_1$ is an unknown high energy scale to be constrained by experiment. Allowing for a difference in neutrino and photon propagation times of $\sim 10$ days, we find that $M_1 \gtrsim 3 \times 10^{16}$ GeV. This improves on previous limits on linear Lorentz violation in neutrino propagation by many orders of magnitude, and the same is true for quadratic Lorentz violation.

Comments: 9 pages, no figures

Abstract: 1807.05025
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Title: Magnetic Mirroring and Focusing of Cosmic Rays

Abstract: We study the combined impact of magnetic mirroring and focusing on the ionization by cosmic rays (CRs) in dense molecular clouds and circumstellar disks. We show that for effective column densities of up to $\sim10^{25}$ cm$^{-2}$ (where ionization is the main mechanism of energy losses by CRs) the two effects practically cancel each other out, provided the magnetic field strength has a single peak along field lines. In this case the ionization rate at a given location is controlled solely by attenuation of interstellar CRs due to energy losses. The situation is very different in the presence of magnetic pockets -- local minima of the field strength, where the CR density and thus ionization can be reduced drastically. We obtain simple analytical expressions allowing accurate calculation of the ionization rate in these regions.

Comments: Accepted to ApJ

Abstract: 1807.04878
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Title: Deep LOFAR 150 MHz imaging of the Boötes field: Unveiling the faint low-frequency sky

Abstract: We have conducted a deep survey (with a central rms of $55\mu\textrm{Jy}$) with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 120-168 MHz of the Bo\"otes field, with an angular resolution of $3.98^{''}\times6.45^{''}$, and obtained a sample of 10091 radio sources ($5\sigma$ limit) over an area of $20\:\textrm{deg}^{2}$. The astrometry and flux scale accuracy of our source catalog is investigated. The resolution bias, incompleteness and other systematic effects that could affect our source counts are discussed and accounted for. The derived 150 MHz source counts present a flattening below sub-mJy flux densities, that is in agreement with previous results from high- and low- frequency surveys. This flattening has been argued to be due to an increasing contribution of star-forming galaxies and faint active galactic nuclei. Additionally, we use our observations to evaluate the contribution of cosmic variance to the scatter in source counts measurements. The latter is achieved by dividing our Bo\"otes mosaic into 10 non-overlapping circular sectors, each one with an approximate area of $2\:\textrm{deg}^{2}.$ The counts in each sector are computed in the same way as done for the entire mosaic. By comparing the induced scatter with that of counts obtained from depth observations scaled to 150MHz, we find that the $1\sigma$ scatter due to cosmic variance is larger than the Poissonian errors of the source counts, and it may explain the dispersion from previously reported depth source counts at flux densities $S<1\,\textrm{mJy}$. This work demonstrates the feasibility of achieving deep radio imaging at low-frequencies with LOFAR.

Comments: A\&A in press. 15 pages, 16 figures

Abstract: 1807.04840
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Title: Study of the molecular gas towards the N11 region in the Large Magellanic Cloud

Abstract: We study three subregions in the HII region N11 which is located at the northeast side of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We used $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO J=3--2 data observed with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) with an angular and spectral resolution of 22$^{\prime\prime}$ and 0.11 km s$^{-1}$ respectively. From the $^{12}$CO J=3--2 and $^{13}$CO J=3--2 integrated maps we estimated, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), masses in about $10^4$ M$_\odot$ for the molecular clouds associated with each subregion. Additionally, from the mentioned maps we study the $^{12}$CO /$^{13}$CO integrated ratios for each subregion, obtaining values between 8 and 10.

Abstract: 1807.04806
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Title: Use of Python programming language in astronomy and science

Abstract: The use of Python is noticeably growing among the scientific community, and Astronomy is not an exception. The power of Python consists of being an extremely versatile high-level language, easy to program that combines both traditional programming and data reduction and analysis tools. Here I make a brief introduction to Python, mentioning a few programming practices implemented in the language and some of its useful features on the process of data manipulation. I cover in a little more detail the standard scientific libraries (NumPy and SciPy) for data handling, the graphical library (Matplotlib), and tools for specific use in astronomy (PyFITS and PyRAF). Good programming practices and how they are implemented at the language are also viewed. Python resources and references are mentioned through- out the text for those who wish to go deeper and make use of the power of the language.

Comments: Discussion Paper

Abstract: 1807.04780
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Title: Multi-Messenger Astrophysics: Harnessing the Data Revolution

Abstract: The past year has witnessed discovery of the first identified counterparts to a gravitational wave transient (GW 170817A) and a very high-energy neutrino (IceCube-170922A). These source identifications, and ensuing detailed studies, have realized longstanding dreams of astronomers and physicists to routinely carry out observations of cosmic sources by other than electromagnetic means, and inaugurated the era of "multi-messenger" astronomy. While this new era promises extraordinary physical insights into the universe, it brings with it new challenges, including: highly heterogeneous, high-volume, high-velocity datasets; globe-spanning cross-disciplinary teams of researchers, regularly brought together into transient collaborations; an extraordinary breadth and depth of domain-specific knowledge and computing resources required to anticipate, model, and interpret observations; and the routine need for adaptive, distributed, rapid-response observing campaigns to fully exploit the scientific potential of each source. We argue, therefore, that the time is ripe for the community to conceive and propose an Institute for Multi-Messenger Astrophysics that would coordinate its resources in a sustained and strategic fashion to efficiently address these challenges, while simultaneously serving as a center for education and key supporting activities. In this fashion, we can prepare now to realize the bright future that we see, beyond, through these newly opened windows onto the universe.

Comments: workshop summary, 20 pages, by the participants of the Cyberinfrastructure for Multi-Messenger Astrophysics NSF-funded Workshop Held on 23-24 May 2018 at the University of Maryland

Abstract: 1807.04757
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Title: Measuring masses in low mass X-ray binaries via X-ray spectroscopy: the case of MXB 1659-298

Abstract: The determination of fundamental parameters in low-mass X-ray binaries typically relies on measuring the radial velocity curve of the companion star through optical or near-infrared spectroscopy. It was recently suggested that high resolution X-ray spectroscopy might enable a measurement of the radial velocity curve of the compact object by monitoring the Doppler shifts induced by the orbital motion of the disc wind or the disc atmosphere. We analysed a Chandra-HETG+NuSTAR soft state observation of MXB 1659-298, an eclipsing neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We measured a radial velocity curve whose phase offset and semi-amplitude are consistent with the primary star. We derived the value for the semi-amplitude of the radial velocity for the compact object $K_1=89\pm19$ km s$^{-1}$, constrained the mass of the secondary ($0.3\leq M_2\leq0.8$ M$_\odot$) and the orbital inclination of the binary system ($73\leq i\leq77^\circ$). These values are consistent with previous estimates from independent methods. Via the same technique, the next generation of X-ray observatories equipped with high spectral resolution instruments (e.g., Athena) will have the potential to measure the radial velocity curve of the primary in high inclination X-ray binaries to an accuracy of a few per cent.

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters

Abstract: 1807.05186
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Title: The Great Space Weather Event during February 1872 Recorded in East Asia

Abstract: The study of historical great geomagnetic storms is crucial for assessing the possible risks to the technological infrastructure of a modern society, caused by extreme space-weather events. The normal benchmark has been the great geomagnetic storm of September 1859, the so-called "Carrington Event". However, there are numerous records of another great geomagnetic storm in February 1872. This storm, about 12 years after the Carrington Event, resulted in comparable magnetic disturbances and auroral displays over large areas of the Earth. We have revisited this great geomagnetic storm in terms of the auroral and sunspot records in the historical documents from East Asia. In particular, we have surveyed the auroral records from East Asia and estimated the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval to be near 24.3 deg invariant latitude (ILAT), on the basis that the aurora was seen near the zenith at Shanghai (20 deg magnetic latitude, MLAT). These results confirm that this geomagnetic storm of February 1872 was as extreme as the Carrington Event, at least in terms of the equatorward motion of the auroral oval. Indeed, our results support the interpretation of the simultaneous auroral observations made at Bombay (10 deg MLAT). The East Asian auroral records have indicated extreme brightness, suggesting unusual precipitation of high-intensity, low-energy electrons during this geomagnetic storm. We have compared the duration of the East Asian auroral displays with magnetic observations in Bombay and found that the auroral displays occurred in the initial phase, main phase, and early recovery phase of the magnetic storm.

Comments: 28 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal on 31 May 2018

Abstract: 1807.04748
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Title: Blazar Flares as an Origin of High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos?

Abstract: We consider implications of high-energy neutrino emission from blazar flares, including the recent event IceCube-170922A and the 2014-2015 neutrino flare that could originate from TXS 0506+056. First, we discuss their contribution to the diffuse neutrino intensity taking into account various observational constraints. Blazars are likely to be subdominant in the diffuse neutrino intensity at sub-PeV energies, and we show that blazar flares like those of TXS 0506+056 could make <1-10 percent of the total neutrino intensity. We also argue that the neutrino output of blazars can be dominated by flares in the standard leptonic scenario for their gamma-ray emission, but energetic flares can still be detected with a rate of <1 per year. Second, we consider multi-messenger constraints on the source modeling. We show that luminous neutrino flares should be accompanied by luminous broadband cascade emission, emerging also in X rays and gamma rays. This implies that not only gamma-ray telescopes like Fermi but also X-ray sky monitors such as Swift and MAXI are critical to test the canonical picture based on the single-zone modeling. We also suggest a two-zone model that can satisfy the X-ray constraints, in which the the flaring neutrinos could be produced via either photomeson or hadronuclear process.

Comments: 11 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, with clarification in discussions. Results and conclusions unchanged

Abstract: 1807.04610
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Title: A Dense Companion to the Short-Period Millisecond Pulsar Binary PSR J0636+5128

Abstract: PSR J0636+5128 is a millisecond pulsar in one of the most compact pulsar binaries known, with a 96\,min orbital period. The pulsar mass function suggests a very low-mass companion, similar to that seen in so-called "black widow" binaries. Unlike in most of those, however, no radio eclipses by material driven off from the companion were seen leading to the possibility that the companion was a degenerate remnant of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. We report the discovery of the optical counterpart of its companion in images taken with the Gemini North and Keck~I telescopes. The companion varies between $r=25$ and $r=23$ on the 96\,min orbital period of the binary, caused by irradiation from the pulsar's energetic wind. We modeled the multi-color lightcurve using parallax constraints from pulsar timing and determine a companion mass of $(1.71\pm0.23)\times 10^{-2}\,M_\odot$, a radius of $(7.6\pm1.4)\times 10^{-2}\,R_\odot$, and a mean density of $54\pm26\,{\rm g\,cm}^{-3}$, all for an assumed neutron star mass of $1.4\,M_\odot$. This makes the companion to PSR J0636+5128 one of the densest of the "black widow" systems. Modeling suggests that the composition is not predominantly hydrogen, perhaps due to an origin in an ultra-compact X-ray binary.

Comments: 4 figures, 1 table. Submitted to ApJ on June 29, 2018

Abstract: 1807.04607
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Title: VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object TXS 0506+056

Abstract: On 2017 September 22, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory reported the detection of the high-energy neutrino event \icnu, of potential astrophysical origin. It was soon determined that the neutrino direction was consistent with the location of the gamma-ray blazar \txs~(3FGL J0509.4+0541), which was in an elevated gamma-ray emission state as measured by the \emph{Fermi} satellite. VERITAS observations of the neutrino/blazar region started on 2017 September 23 in response to the neutrino alert and continued through 2018 February 6. While no significant very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 100 GeV) emission was observed from the blazar by VERITAS in the two-week period immediately following the IceCube alert, TXS 0506+056 was detected by VERITAS with a significance of 5.8 standard deviations ($\sigma$) in the full 35-hour data set. The average photon flux of the source during this period was $(8.9 \pm 1.6) \times 10^{-12} \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$, or 1.6\% of the Crab Nebula flux, above an energy threshold of 110 GeV, with a soft spectral index of $4.8 \pm 1.3$.

Abstract: 1807.04592
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Title: Stellar mass distribution and star formation history of the Galactic disk revealed by mono-age stellar populations from LAMOST

Abstract: We present a detailed determination and analysis of 3D stellar mass distribution of the Galactic disk for mono-age populations using a sample of 0.93 million main-sequence turn-off and subgiant stars from the LAMOST Galactic Surveys. Our results show (1) all stellar populations younger than 10\,Gyr exhibit strong disk flaring, which is accompanied with a dumpy vertical density profile that is best described by a $sech^n$ function with index depending on both radius and age; (2) Asymmetries and wave-like oscillations are presented in both the radial and vertical direction, with strength varying with stellar populations; (3) As a contribution by the Local spiral arm, the mid-plane stellar mass density at solar radius but 400--800\,pc (3--6$^\circ$) away from the Sun in the azimuthal direction has a value of $0.0594\pm0.0008$\,$M_\odot$/pc$^3$, which is 0.0164\,$M_\odot$/pc$^3$ higher than previous estimates at the solar neighborhood. The result causes doubts on the current estimate of local dark matter density; (4) The radial distribution of surface mass density yields a disk scale length evolving from $\sim$4\,kpc for the young to $\sim$2\,kpc for the old populations. The overall population exhibits a disk scale length of $2.48\pm0.05$\,kpc, and a total stellar mass of $3.6(\pm0.1)\times10^{10}$\,$M_\odot$ assuming $R_{\odot}=8.0$\,kpc, and the value becomes $4.1(\pm0.1)\times10^{10}$\,$M_\odot$ if $R_{\odot}=8.3$\,kpc; (5) The disk has a peak star formation rate ({\rm SFR}) changing from 6--8\,Gyr at the inner to 4--6\,Gyr ago at the outer part, indicating an inside-out assemblage history. The 0--1\,Gyr population yields a recent disk total {\rm SFR} of $1.96\pm0.12$\,$M_\odot$/yr.

Comments: 37 pages, 26 figures, 8 tables; Accepted for publication in ApJ supplement

Abstract: 1807.04565
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Title: The escape speed curve of the Galaxy obtained from Gaia DR2 implies a heavy Milky Way

Abstract: We measure the escape speed curve of the Milky Way based on the analysis of the velocity distribution of $\sim 2850$ counter-rotating halo stars from the Gaia DR2. The distances were estimated through the StarHorse code, and only stars with distance errors smaller than 10 per cent were used in the study. The escape speed curve is measured at Galactocentric radii ranging from $\sim 5$ kpc to $\sim 10.5$ kpc. The local Galactic escape at the Sun's position is estimated to be $v_\mathrm{e}(r_\odot)=580 \pm 63~\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$, and it rises towards the Galactic center. Defined as the minimum speed required to reach three virial radii, our estimate of the escape speed as a function of radius implies, for a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and local circular velocity of $240~\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$, a dark matter mass $M_{200}=1.28^{+0.68}_{-0.50} \times 10^{12}~M_\odot$ and a high concentration $c_{200}=11.09^{+2.94}_{-1.79}$. Assuming the mass-concentration relation of $\Lambda$CDM, we get $M_{200}=1.55_{-0.51}^{+0.64}\times 10^{12}~M_\odot$, $c_{200}=7.93_{-0.27}^{+0.33}$, for a local circular velocity of $228~\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$.

Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication on A&A Letters

Abstract: 1807.04554
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Title: On the progressive hardening of the cosmic-ray proton spectrum in the inner Galaxy

Abstract: Spatial variations of the average properties that characterize the hadronic component of the diffuse Galactic cosmic-ray sea, in particular the spectral slope and normalization, may unveil critical information about their confinement mechanism in the Galaxy. In the first part of this paper we perform an analysis of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data with the SkyFACT package, which combines image reconstruction techniques with standard template fitting, isolate the hadronic emission and decompose it into Galactocentric rings. We find a significant hardening of the hadronic spectral index towards the molecular ring. We study this hardening in different energy ranges, and assess its resilience with respect to different prescriptions in the analysis setup. In the second part we quantify the contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray flux coming from unresolved point sources with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation, and consider whether the trend characterized in the first part can be mimicked by a progressively more relevant flux associated to this component in the inner Galaxy. We find that the observed hardening of the hadronic spectral index cannot be due to unresolved sources in the sub-TeV energy range, especially outside the molecular ring, given reasonable assumptions about the unresolved source population.

Comments: 23 pages, 12 figures

Abstract: 1807.04537
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Title: A Multimessenger Picture of the Flaring Blazar TXS 0506+056: implications for High-Energy Neutrino Emission and Cosmic Ray Acceleration

Abstract: Detection of the IceCube-170922A neutrino coincident with the flaring blazar TXS 0506+056, the first and only 3-sigma high-energy neutrino source association to date, offers a potential breakthrough in our understanding of high-energy cosmic particles and blazar physics. We present a comprehensive analysis of TXS 0506+056 during its flaring state, using newly collected Swift, NuSTAR, and X-shooter data with Fermi observations and numerical models to constrain the blazar's particle acceleration processes and multimessenger (electromagnetic and high-energy neutrino) emissions. Accounting properly for electromagnetic cascades in the emission region, we find a physically-consistent picture only within a hybrid leptonic scenario, with gamma-rays produced by external inverse-Compton processes and high-energy neutrinos via a radiatively-subdominant hadronic component. We derive robust constraints on the blazar's neutrino and cosmic-ray emissions and demonstrate that, because of cascade effects, the 0.1-100keV emissions of TXS 0506+056 serve as a better probe of its hadronic acceleration and high-energy neutrino production processes than its GeV-TeV emissions. If the IceCube neutrino association holds, physical conditions in the TXS 0506+056 jet must be close to optimal for high-energy neutrino production, and are not favorable for ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. Alternatively, the challenges we identify in generating a significant rate of IceCube neutrino detections from TXS 0506+056 may disfavor single-zone models. In concert with continued operations of the high-energy neutrino observatories, we advocate regular X-ray monitoring of TXS 0506+056 and other blazars in order to test single-zone blazar emission models, clarify the nature and extent of their hadronic acceleration processes, and carry out the most sensitive possible search for additional multimessenger sources.

Comments: 23 pages, 6 figures, 9 tables, submitted to ApJ

Abstract: 1807.04461
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Title: Dissecting the region around IceCube-170922A: the blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first cosmic neutrino source

Abstract: We present the dissection in space, time, and energy of the region around the IceCube-170922A neutrino alert. This study is motivated by: (1) the first association between a neutrino alert and a blazar in a flaring state, TXS 0506+056; (2) the evidence of a neutrino flaring activity during 2014 - 2015 from the same direction; (3) the lack of an accompanying simultaneous $\gamma$-ray enhancement from the same counterpart; (4) the contrasting flaring activity of a neighbouring bright $\gamma$-ray source, the blazar PKS 0502+049, during 2014 - 2015. Our study makes use of multi-wavelength archival data accessed through Open Universe tools and includes a new analysis of Fermi-LAT data. We find that PKS 0502+049 contaminates the $\gamma$-ray emission region at low energies but TXS 0506+056 dominates the sky above a few GeV. TXS 0506+056, which is a very strong (top percent) radio and $\gamma$-ray source, is in a high $\gamma$-ray state during the neutrino alert but in a low though hard $\gamma$-ray state in coincidence with the neutrino flare. Both states can be reconciled with the energy associated with the neutrino emission and, in particular during the low/hard state, there is evidence that TXS 0506+056 has undergone a hadronic flare with very important implications for blazar modelling. All multi-messenger diagnostics reported here support a single coherent picture in which TXS 0506+056, a very high energy $\gamma$-ray blazar, is the only counterpart of all the neutrino emissions in the region and therefore the most plausible first non-stellar neutrino and, hence, cosmic ray source.

Comments: This paper provides complementary information to the two Science papers appearing today dealing with the same source announced in the press conference held on July 12. 13 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Abstract: 1807.04335
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Title: Lepto-hadronic single-zone models for the electromagnetic and neutrino emission of TXS 0506+056

Abstract: While active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets have long been prime candidates for the origin of extragalactic cosmic rays and neutrinos, the BL Lac object TXS 0506+056 is the first astrophysical source observed to be associated with some confidence ($\sim 3\sigma$) with a high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, detected by the IceCube Observatory. The source was found to be active in high-energy gamma-rays with Fermi-LAT and in very-high-energy gamma-rays with the MAGIC telescopes. To consistently explain the observed neutrino and multi-wavelength electromagnetic emission of TXS 0506+056, we investigate in detail single-zone models of lepto-hadronic emission, assuming co-spatial acceleration of electrons and protons in the jet, and synchrotron photons from the electrons as targets for photo-hadronic neutrino production. The parameter space concerning the physical conditions of the emission region and particle populations is comprehensively explored for scenarios where the gamma-rays are dominated by either 1) proton synchrotron emission or 2) synchrotron-self-Compton emission, with a minor but non-negligible contribution from photo-hadronic cascades in both cases. We find that the latter provides acceptable solutions, while the former is strongly disfavoured due to the insufficient neutrino production rate.

Comments: Submitted to MNRAS

Abstract: 1807.04309
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Title: Search for neutrinos from TXS 0506+056 with the ANTARES telescope

Authors: A. Albert, M. Andrè, M. Anghinolfi, G. Anton, M. Ardid, J.-J. Aubert, J. Aublin, T. Avgitas, B. Baret, J. Barrios-Martì, S. Basa, B. Belhorma, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, R. Bormuth, J. Boumaaza, S. Bourret, M.C. Bouwhuis, H. Branzas, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, J. Busto, A. Capone, L. Caramete, J. Carr, S. Celli, M. Chabab, R. Cherkaoui El Moursli, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, J.A.B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer, R. Coniglione, H. Costantini, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. F. Danzau, A. Deschamps, C. Distefano, I. Di Palma, A. Domi, G. Donà, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, I. El Bojaddaini, N. El Khayati, D. Elsasser, A. Enzenhofer, A. Ettahiri, F. Fassi, I. Felis, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, L. Fusco, P. Gay, H. Glotin, T. Gréegoire, R. Gracia Ruiz, K. Graf, S. Hallmann, H. van Haren, et al. (63 additional authors not shown)
Abstract: The results of three different searches for neutrino candidates, associated with the IceCube-170922A event or from the direction of TXS 0506+056, by the ANTARES neutrino telescope are presented. The first search refers to the online follow-up of the IceCube alert; the second is based on the standard time-integrated method employed by the Collaboration to search for point-like neutrino sources; the third uses the information from the IceCube time-dependent analysis reporting a bursting activity centered on December 13, 2014, as input for an ANTARES time-dependent analysis. The online follow-up and the time-dependent analysis yield no events related to the source. The time-integrated study performed over a period from 2007 to 2017 fits 1.03 signal events, which corresponds to a p-value of 3.4% (not considering trial factors). Only for two other astrophysical objects in our candidate list, a smaller p-value had been found. When considering that 107 sources have been investigated, the post-trial p-value for TXS 0506+056 corresponds to 87%.

Abstract: 1807.04300
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Title: The blazar TXS 0506+056 associated with a high-energy neutrino: insights into extragalactic jets and cosmic ray acceleration

Authors: Max Ludwig Ahnen (1), Stefano Ansoldi (2 and 20), Lucio Angelo Antonelli (3), Cornelia Arcaro (4), Dominik Baack (5), Ana Babić (6), Biswajit Banerjee (7), Priyadarshini Bangale (8), Ulisses Barres de Almeida (8 and 9), Juan Abel Barrio (10), Josefa Becerra González (11), Wlodek Bednarek (12), Elisa Bernardini (4 and 13 and 23), Alessio Berti (2 and 24), Wrijupan Bhattacharyya (13), Adrian Biland (1), Oscar Blanch (14), Giacomo Bonnoli (15), Roberto Carosi (15), Alessandro Carosi (3), Giovanni Ceribella (8), Anshu Chatterjee (7), Sidika Merve Colak (14), Pierre Colin (8), Eduardo Colombo (11), Jose Luis Contreras (10), Juan Cortina (14), Stefano Covino (3), Paolo Cumani (14), Paolo Da Vela (15), Francesco Dazzi (3), Alessandro De Angelis (4), Barbara De Lotto (2), Manuel Delfino (14 and 25),
Jordi Delgado (14), Federico Di Pierro (4), Alberto Domínguez (10), Dijana Dominis Prester (6), Daniela Dorner (16), Michele Doro (4), Sabrina Einecke (5), Dominik Elsaesser (5), Vandad Fallah Ramazani (17), Alba Fernández-Barral (4 and 14), David Fidalgo (10), Luca Foffano (4), Konstantin Pfrang (5), Maria Victoria Fonseca (10), Lluis Font (18), Christian Fruck (8), Daniel Galindo (19), Stefano Gallozzi (3), Ramon J. García López (11), Markus Garczarczyk (13), Markus Gaug (18), Paola Giammaria (3), Nikola Godinović (6), Dariusz Gora (13 and 27), Daniel Guberman (14), Daniela Hadasch (20), Alexander Hahn (8), Tarek Hassan (14), Masaaki Hayashida (20), Javier Herrera (11), Juergen Hose (8), Dario Hrupec (6), Susumu Inoue (29), Kazuma Ishio (8), Yuki Iwamura (8), Yusuke Konno (20), Hidetoshi Kubo (20), Junko Kushida (20), Damir Lelas (6), Elina Lindfors (17), Saverio Lombardi (3), Francesco Longo (2 and 24), Marcos López (10), Camilla Maggio (18), Pratik Majumdar (7), Martin Makariev (21), Galina Maneva (21), Marina Manganaro (11), Karl Mannheim (16), Laura Maraschi (3), Mosé Mariotti (4), Manel Martínez (14), Shu Masuda (20), Daniel Mazin (8 and 20), Milen Minev (21), Jose Miguel Miranda (15), Razmik Mirzoyan (8), Abelardo Moralejo (14), Victoria Moreno (18), Elena Moretti (8), Tsutomu Nagayoshi (20), Vitaly Neustroev (17), Andrzej Niedzwiecki (12), Mireia Nievas Rosillo (10), Cosimo Nigro (13), Kari Nilsson (17), Daniele Ninci (14), Kyoshi Nishijima (20), Koji Noda (20), Leyre Nogués (14), Simona Paiano (4), Joaquim Palacio (14), David Paneque (8), Riccardo Paoletti (15), Josep M. Paredes (19), Giovanna Pedaletti (13), Michele Peresano (2), Massimo Persic (2 and 26), Pier Giorgio Prada Moroni (22), Elisa Prandini (4), Ivica Puljak (6), Jezabel Rodriguez Garcia (8), Ignasi Reichardt (4), Wolfgang Rhode (5), Marc Ribó (19), Javier Rico (14), Chiara Righi (3), Andrea Rugliancich (15), Takayuki Saito (20), Konstancja Satalecka (13), Thomas Schweizer (8), Julian Sitarek (12 and 20), Iva Snidarić (6), Dorota Sobczynska (12), Antonio Stamerra (3), Marcel Strzys (8), Tihomir Surić (6), Mitsunari Takahashi (20), Fabrizio Tavecchio (3), Petar Temnikov (21), Tomislav Terzić (6), Masahiro Teshima (8 and 20), Nuria Torres-Albà (19), Aldo Treves (2), Shimpei Tsujimoto (20), Gaia Vanzo (11), Monica Vazquez Acosta (11), Ievgen Vovk (8), John E. Ward (14), Martin Will (8), Darko Zarić (6), Matteo Cerruti (30) ((1) ETH Zurich, Switzerland, (2) Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, Italy, (3) National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy, (4) Università di Padova and INFN, Italy, (5) Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany, (6) Croatian MAGIC Consortium: University of Rijeka, University of Split - FESB, University of Zagreb - FER, University of Osijek, and Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Croatia, (7) Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, India, (8) Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Germany, (9) now at Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil, (10) Unidad de Partículas y Cosmología (UPARCOS), Universidad Complutense, Spain, (11) Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, and Universidad de La Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, Tenerife, Spain, (12) University of Łódź, Department of Astrophysics, Poland, (13) Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Germany, (14) Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Spain, (15) Università di Siena and INFN Pisa, Italy, (16) Universität Würzburg, Germany, (17) Finnish MAGIC Consortium: Tuorla Observatory and Finnish Centre of Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaisalantie 20, Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, Finland, (18) Departament de Física, and CERES-IEEC, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E- Spain, (19) Universitat de Barcelona, ICC, IEEC-UB, Spain, (20) Japanese MAGIC Consortium: ICRR, The University of Tokyo, Japan, Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Japan, Tokai University, Japan, The University of Tokushima, Japan, (21) Inst. for Nucl. Research and Nucl. Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria, (22) Università di Pisa, and INFN Pisa, Italy, (23) Humboldt University of Berlin, Institut für Physik Germany, (24) also at Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, Italy, (25) also at Port d'Informació Científica (PIC) Spain, (26) also at INAF-Trieste and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, (27) also at Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland, (28) Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Italy, (29) RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Japan, (30) Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, LPNHE, France)
et al. (112 additional authors not shown)
Abstract: A neutrino with energy of $\sim$290 TeV, IceCube-170922A, was detected in coincidence with the BL Lac object TXS~0506+056 during enhanced gamma-ray activity, with chance coincidence being rejected at $\sim 3\sigma$ level. We monitored the object in the very-high-energy (VHE) band with the MAGIC telescopes for $\sim$41 hours from 1.3 to 40.4 days after the neutrino detection. Day-timescale variability is clearly resolved. We interpret the quasi-simultaneous neutrino and broadband electromagnetic observations with a novel one-zone lepto-hadronic model, based on interactions of electrons and protons co-accelerated in the jet with external photons originating from a slow-moving plasma sheath surrounding the faster jet spine. We can reproduce the multiwavelength spectra of TXS 0506+056 with neutrino rate and energy compatible with IceCube-170922A, and with plausible values for the jet power of $\sim 10^{45} - 4 \times 10^{46} {\rm erg \ s^{-1}}$. The steep spectrum observed by MAGIC is concordant with internal $\gamma\gamma$ absorption above a few tens of GeV entailed by photohadronic production of a $\sim$290 TeV neutrino, corroborating a genuine connection between the multi-messenger signals. In contrast to previous predictions of predominantly hadronic emission from neutrino sources, the gamma-rays can be mostly ascribed to inverse Compton up-scattering of external photons by accelerated electrons. The X-ray and VHE bands provide crucial constraints on the emission from both accelerated electrons and protons. We infer that the maximum energy of protons in the jet co-moving frame can be in the range $\sim 10^{14}$ to $10^{18}$ eV.

Comments: 11 pages, 3 figues, 3 tables, Accepted for publication in ApJL

Abstract: 1807.04299
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Title: A multiwavelength view of BL Lacs neutrino candidates

Abstract: The discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube kicked off a new line of research to identify the electromagnetic counterparts producing these neutrinos. Among the extragalactic sources, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and in particular Blazars, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Their structure, with a relativistic jet pointing to the Earth, offers a natural accelerator of particles and for this reason a perfect birthplace of high energy neutrinos. A good characterisation of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these sources can improve the understanding of the physical composition of the source and the emission processes involved. Starting from our previous works in which we assumed a correlation between the $\gamma$-ray and the neutrino flux of the BL Lacs of the 2FHL catalogue (detected by Fermi above 50GeV), we select those BL Lac in spatial correlation with the IceCube events. We obtain a sample of 7 sources and we start an observational campaign to have a better characterisation of the synchrotron peak. During the analysis of the data a new source has been added because of its position inside the angular uncertainty of a muon track event detected by IceCube. This source, namely TXS0506+056, was in a high-state during the neutrino event and we will consider it as benchmark to check the proprieties of the other sources of the sample during the related neutrino detection.
We obtain a better characterisation of the SED for the sources of our sample. A prospective extreme Blazar, a very peculiar low synchrotron peak (LSP) source with a large separation of the two peaks and a \textit{twin} of TXS0506+056 come up. We also provide the $\gamma$-ray light curve to check the trend of the sources around the neutrino detection but no clears patterns are in common among the sources.

Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures, submitted to MNRAS

Abstract: 1807.04275
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Title: Interpretation of the coincident observation of a high energy neutrino and a bright flare

Abstract: On September 22nd 2017, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory reported a muon track from a neutrino with a very good positional accuracy. The alert triggered a number of astronomical follow-up campaigns, and the Fermi gamma-ray telescope found as counterpart an object named TXS0506+056 in a very bright, flaring state; this observation may be the first direct evidence for an extragalactic source of very high-energy cosmic rays. While this and subsequent observations provide the observational picture across the electromagnetic spectrum, answering where in the spectrum signatures of cosmic rays arise and what the source properties must be, given the observational constraints, requires a self-consistent description of the processes at work. Here we perform a detailed time-dependent modeling of these relevant processes and study a set of self-consistent models for the source. We find a slow but over-proportional increase of the neutrino flux during the flare compared to the production enhancement of energetic cosmic rays. We also demonstrate that interactions of energetic cosmic-ray ions result in predominantly hard X-ray emission, strongly constraining the expected number of neutrinos, and to a lesser degree in TeV gamma rays. Optical photons and GeV-scale gamma rays are predominantly radiated by electrons. Our results indicate that especially future X-ray and TeV-scale gamma-ray observations of nearby objects can be used to identify more such events.

Comments: submitted

Abstract: 1807.04045
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Title: Search for high-energy neutrinos in coincidence with Fast Radio Bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

Authors: A. Albert, M. André, M. Anghinolfi, G. Anton, M. Ardid, J.-J. Aubert, J. Aublin, T. Avgitas, B. Baret, J. Barrios-Martí, S. Basa, B. Belhorma, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, R. Bormuth, J. Boumaaza, S. Bourret, M.C. Bouwhuis, H. Brânzaş, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, J. Busto, A. Capone, L. Caramete, J. Carr, S. Celli, M. Chabab, R. Cherkaoui El Moursli, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, J.A.B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer, R. Coniglione, H. Costantini, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. F. Díaz, A. Deschamps, C. Distefano, I. Di Palma, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, I. El Bojaddaini, N. El Khayati, D. Elsässer, A. Enzenhöfer, A. Ettahiri, F. Fassi, I. Felis, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, L. Fusco, P. Gay, H. Glotin, T. Grégoire, R. Gracia-Ruiz, K. Graf, S. Hallmann, et al. (66 additional authors not shown)
Abstract: In the past decade, a new class of bright transient radio sources with millisecond duration has been discovered. The origin of these so-called Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) is still a great mystery despite the growing observational efforts made by various multi-wavelength and multi-messenger facilities. So far, many models have been proposed to explain FRBs but neither the progenitors nor the radiative and the particle acceleration processes at work have been clearly identified. In this paper, the question whether some hadronic processes may occur in the vicinity of the FRB source is assessed. If so, FRBs may contribute to the high energy cosmic-ray and neutrino fluxes. A search for these hadronic signatures has been done using the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The analysis consists in looking for high-energy neutrinos, in the TeV-PeV regime, spatially and temporally coincident with the detected FRBs. Most of the FRBs discovered in the period 2013-2017 were in the field of view of the ANTARES detector, which is sensitive mostly to events originating from the Southern hemisphere. From this period, 12 FRBs have been selected and no coincident neutrino candidate was observed. Upper limits on the per burst neutrino fluence have been derived using a power law spectrum, $\rm{\frac{dN}{dE_\nu}\propto E_\nu^{-\gamma}}$, for the incoming neutrino flux, assuming spectral indexes $\gamma$ = 1.0, 2.0, 2.5. Finally, the neutrino energy has been constrained by computing the total energy radiated in neutrinos assuming different distances for the FRBs. Constraints on the neutrino fluence and on the energy released are derived from the associated null results.

Comments: 15 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables

Abstract: 1807.03869
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Title: Deep Learning for Image Sequence Classification of Astronomical Events

Abstract: We propose a new sequential classification model for astronomical objects based on a recurrent convolutional neural network (RCNN) which uses sequences of images as inputs. This approach avoids the computation of light curves or difference images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that sequences of images are used directly for the classification of variable objects in astronomy. In addition, we solve partially the problem of transfer learning from synthetic to real-world images. This is done by transforming synthetic light-curves to images in a realistic way, by taking into account observational conditions and instrumental parameters. This approach allows us to generate datasets to train and test our RCNN model for different astronomical surveys and telescopes. Moreover, using a simulated dataset is faster and more adaptable to different surveys and classification tasks compared to collecting real labeled image sequences. To test the RCNN classifier trained with a synthetic dataset, we used real-world data from the High cadence Transient Survey (HiTS) obtaining an average recall of $87%$ on four classes: supernovae, RR Lyrae, non-variables, and asteroids. We compare the results of our model with those of a light curve classifier, in both simulated and real data. Our RCNN model outperforms the light curve classifier due to the extra information contained on the images. The results obtained encourage us to use and continue developing the proposed method for astronomical alert brokers systems that will process alert streams generated by new telescopes such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.

Comments: 15 pages, 15 figures

Abstract: 1807.03797
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Title: Gemini Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph: Instrument Overview

Abstract: The Gemini Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (GIRMOS) is a powerful new instrument being built to facility-class standards for the Gemini telescope. It takes advantage of the latest developments in adaptive optics and integral field spectrographs. GIRMOS will carry out simultaneous high-angular-resolution, spatially-resolved infrared ($1-2.4$ $\mu$m) spectroscopy of four objects within a two-arcminute field-of-regard by taking advantage of multi-object adaptive optics. This capability does not currently exist anywhere in the world and therefore offers significant scientific gains over a very broad range of topics in astronomical research. For example, current programs for high redshift galaxies are pushing the limits of what is possible with infrared spectroscopy at $8-10$-meter class facilities by requiring up to several nights of observing time per target. Therefore, the observation of multiple objects simultaneously with adaptive optics is absolutely necessary to make effective use of telescope time and obtain statistically significant samples for high redshift science. With an expected commissioning date of 2023, GIRMOS's capabilities will also make it a key followup instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope when it is launched in 2021, as well as a true scientific and technical pathfinder for future Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) multi-object spectroscopic instrumentation. In this paper, we will present an overview of this instrument's capabilities and overall architecture. We also highlight how this instrument lays the ground work for a future TMT early-light instrument.

Comments: Published in the Proceedings of SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018. 12 pages, 4 figures

Abstract: 1807.03593
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Title: Tycho's supernova: the view from {\it Gaia}

Abstract: SN 1572 (Tycho Brahe's supernova) clearly belongs to the Ia (thermonuclear) type. It was produced by the explosion of a white dwarf in a binary system. Its remnant has been the first of this type to be explored in search of a possible surviving companion, the mass donor that brought the white dwarf to the point of explosion. A high peculiar motion with respect to the stars at the same location in the Galaxy, mainly due to the orbital velocity at the time of the explosion, is a basic criterion for the detection of such companions. Radial velocities from the spectra of the stars close to the geometrical center of Tycho's supernova remnant, plus proper motions of the same stars, obtained by astrometry with the {\it Hubble Space Telescope}, have been used so far. In addition, a detailed chemical analysis of the atmospheres of a sample of candidate stars had been made. However, the distances to the stars, remained uncertain. Now, the Second {\it Gaia} Data Release (DR2) provides unprecedent accurate distances and new proper motions for the stars can be compared with those made from the {\it HST}. We consider the Galactic orbits that the candidate stars to SN companion would have in the future. We do this to explore kinematic peculiarity. We also locate a representative sample of candidate stars in the Toomre diagram. Using the new data, we reevaluate here the status of the candidates suggested thus far, as well as the larger sample of the stars seen in the central region of the remnant.

Comments: 36 pages, 4 tables, 6 figures. Submitted to the ApJ (comments welcome)

Abstract: 1807.03378
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Title: The molecular gas content in obscured AGN at z > 1

Abstract: The standard AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary scenario predicts a phase of deeply buried supermassive black hole growth coexisting with a starburst (SB) before feedback phenomena deplete the cold molecular gas reservoir of the galaxy and an optically luminous QSO is revealed ('SB-QSO evolutionary sequence'). The aim of this work is to measure the cold gas reservoir of three highly obscured QSOs to test if their gas fraction is similar to that of sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs), as expected by some models, and place these measurements in the context of the SB-QSO framework. We target CO(1-0) transition in BzK4892, a Compton Thick (CT) QSO at z=2.6, CO(1-0) in BzK8608 and CO(2-1) in CDF153, two highly obscured QSOs at z=2.5 and z=1.5, respectively. For all these targets, we place 3$\sigma$ upper limits on the CO, with $L'_{CO} < (1.5\div 2.8)\times 10^{10}$ K km/s pc$^2$. We also compare the molecular gas conditions of our targets with those of other systems at z>1, considering normal star forming galaxies and SMGs, unobscured and obscured AGN from the literature. For the AGN samples, we provide an updated and (almost) complete collection of targets with CO follow-up. BzK4892 displays a high star formation efficiency (SFE$=L_{IR}/L'_{CO}>410$ L$_{\odot}$/(K km s$^{-1}$ pc$^2$)) and a gas fraction $f_{gas}<0.1$. Less stringent constraints are derived for the other two targets ($f_{gas}<0.5$ and SFE$>10$). From the comparison with literature data, we found that a) obscured AGN at z>1 are associated with higher SFE and lower $f_{gas}$ with respect to star forming galaxies; b) mildly and highly obscured active galaxies have comparable gas fractions; c) the SFE of CT and obscured AGN are similar to those of unobscured AGN. Within the SB-QSO framework, these findings could be consistent with a scenario where feedback can impact the host galaxy already from the early phases of the SB-QSO sequence.

Comments: 20 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

Abstract: 1807.03315
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Title: The $Gaia$ Data Release 2 catalogue of white dwarfs and a comparison with SDSS

Authors: Nicola Pietro Gentile Fusillo (1), Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay (1), Boris T. Gänsicke (1), Christopher J. Manser (1), Tim Cunningham (1), Elena Cukanovaite (1), Mark Hollands (1), Thomas Marsh (1) Roberto Raddi (2), Stefan Jordan (3), Silvia Toonen (4), Stephan Geier (5), Martin Barstow (6), Jeffrey D. Cummings (7) ((1) University of Warwick, (2) Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, (3) Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, (4) University of Amsterdam, (5) University of Potsdam, (6) University of Leicester, (7) Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: We present a catalogue of white dwarf candidates selected from the second data release of $Gaia$ (DR2). We used a sample of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to map the entire space spanned by these objects in the $Gaia$ Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We then defined a set of cuts in absolute magnitude, colour, and a number of $Gaia$ quality flags to remove the majority of contaminating objects. Finally, we adopt a method analogous to the one presented in our earlier SDSS photometric catalogues to calculate a probability of being a white dwarf ($P_{\mathrm{WD}}$) for all $Gaia$ sources which passed the initial selection. The final catalogue is composed of $439\,659$ stars with calculated $P_{\mathrm{WD}}$ from which it is possible to select a sample of $\simeq 260\,000$ high-confidence white dwarf candidates in the magnitude range $8<G<21$. We derive atmospheric parameters for most high-confidence degenerate stars using $Gaia$ data and find them to be in good agreement with previously available photometric data sets. By comparing this catalogue with an independent sample of SDSS white dwarf candidates we estimate an upper limit in completeness of $81$ per cent for white dwarfs with $G \leq 20$ mag and $T_{\mathrm{eff}} > 7000\,$K, at high galactic latitudes ($|b|>20^{\circ}$). However, the completeness drops at low galactic latitudes, and the magnitude limit of the catalogue varies significantly across the sky as a function of $Gaia$'s scanning law. We also provide the list of objects within our sample with available SDSS spectroscopy. We use this spectroscopic sample to characterise the observed structure of the white dwarf distribution in the H-R diagram.

Comments: 21 pages, 18 figures, 4 tables. Submitted for publication to MNRAS. Typos fixed in V2. Gaia DR2 catalogue of white dwarf candidates available <this https URL>. SDSS spectra sample available <this https URL>

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