Abstracts of Interest

Selected by: Patrick van Bodegom

Abstract: 1712.01283
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Title: Spatially resolved kinematics in the central 1 kpc of a compact star-forming galaxy at z=2.3 from ALMA CO observations

Abstract: We present high spatial resolution (FWHM$\sim$0.14'') observations of the CO($8-7$) line in GDS-14876, a compact star-forming galaxy at $z=2.3$ with total stellar mass of $\log(M_{\star}/M_{\odot})=10.9$. The spatially resolved velocity map of the inner $r\lesssim1$~kpc reveals a continous velocity gradient consistent with the kinematics of a rotating disk with $v_{\rm rot}(r=1\rm kpc)=163\pm5$ km s$^{-1}$ and $v_{\rm rot}/\sigma\sim2.5$. The gas-to-stellar ratios estimated from CO($8-7$) and the dust continuum emission span a broad range, $f^{\rm CO}_{\rm gas}=M_{\rm gas}/M_{\star}=13-45\%$ and $f^{\rm cont}_{\rm gas}=50-67\%$, but are nonetheless consistent given the uncertainties in the conversion factors. The dynamical modeling yields a dynamical mass of$\log(M_{\rm dyn}/M_{\odot})=10.58^{+0.5}_{-0.2}$ which is lower, but still consistent with the baryonic mass, $\log$(M$_{\rm bar}$= M$_{\star}$ + M$^{\rm CO}_{\rm gas}$/M$_{\odot}$)$=11.0$, if the smallest CO-based gas fraction is assumed. Despite a low, overall gas fraction, the small physical extent of the dense, star-forming gas probed by CO($8-7$), $\sim3\times$ smaller than the stellar size, implies a strong concentration that increases the gas fraction up to $f^{\rm CO, 1\rm kpc}_{\rm gas}\sim 85\%$ in the central 1 kpc. Such a gas-rich center, coupled with a high star-formation rate, SFR$\sim$ 500 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, suggests that GDS-14876 is quickly assembling a dense stellar component (bulge) in a strong nuclear starburst. Assuming its gas reservoir is depleted without replenishment, GDS-14876 will quickly ($t_{\rm depl}\sim27$ Myr) become a compact quiescent galaxy that could retain some fraction of the observed rotational support.

Comments: Accepted for Publication in ApJL. Kinematic maps are shown in Figures 2 and 4

Abstract: 1712.01287
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Title: The Near-Infrared CO Absorption Band as a Probe to the Innermost Part of an AGN Obscuring Material

Abstract: We performed a systematic analysis of the 4.67 $\mu$m CO ro-vibrational absorption band toward nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and analyzed the absorption profiles of ten nearby galaxies collected from the AKARI and Spitzer spectroscopic observations that show the CO absorption feature by fitting a plane-parallel local thermal equilibrium gas model. We found that CO gas is warm (200--500 K) and has a large column density ($N_\mathrm{H}\gtrsim10^{23}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$). The heating of the gas is not explicable by either UV heating or shock heating because these processes cannot represent the large column densities of the warm gas. Instead, X-ray photons from the nuclei, which can produce large columns of warm gas with up to $N_\mathrm{H}\sim10^{24}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$, are the most convincing power source. The hydrogen column density estimated from the CO band is smaller than that inferred from X-ray observations. These results indicate that the region probed by the near-infrared CO absorption is in the vicinity of the nuclei and is located outside the X-ray emitting region. Furthermore, the covering factors close to unity required by the observed deep absorption profiles suggest that the probed region is close to the continuum source, which can be designated as the inner rim of the obscuring material around the AGN.

Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ. Duplicate sub figures in Figure 1 have been replaced with the correct ones (v2)

Abstract: 1712.01300
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Title: Where are Compton-thick radio galaxies? A hard X-ray view of three candidates

Abstract: We present a broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the radio-loud active galactic nuclei NGC 612, 4C 73.08 and 3C 452, exploiting archival data from NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, Swift and INTEGRAL. These Compton-thick candidates are the most absorbed sources among the hard X-ray selected radio galaxies studied in Panessa et al. (2016). We find an X-ray absorbing column density in every case below $1.5 \times 10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$, and no evidence for a strong reflection continuum or iron K $\alpha$ line. Therefore, none of these sources is properly Compton-thick. We review other Compton-thick radio galaxies reported in the literature, arguing that we currently lack strong evidences for heavily absorbed radio-loud AGNs.

Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, 10 pages, 5 figures

Abstract: 1712.01362
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Title: A disrupted molecular torus around Eta Carinae as seen in 12CO with ALMA

Abstract: We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of $^{12}$CO2$-$1 emission from circumstellar material around the massive star $\eta$~Carinae. These observations reveal new structural details about the cool equatorial torus located $\sim$4000 au from the star. The CO torus is not a complete azimuthal loop, but rather, is missing its near side, which appears to have been cleared away. The missing material matches the direction of apastron in the eccentric binary system, making it likely that $\eta$~Car's companion played an important role in disrupting portions of the torus soon after ejection. Molecular gas seen in ALMA data aligns well with the cool dust around $\eta$~Car previously observed in mid-infrared (IR) maps, whereas hot dust resides at the inner surface of the molecular torus. The CO also coincides with the spatial and velocity structure of near-IR H$_2$ emission. Together, these suggest that the CO torus seen by ALMA is actually the pinched waist of the Homunculus polar lobes, which glows brightly because it is close to the star and warmer than the poles. The near side of the torus appears to be a blowout, associated with fragmented equatorial ejecta. We discuss implications for the origin of various features northwest of the star. CO emission from the main torus implies a total gas mass in the range of 0.2-1 $M_{\odot}$ (possibly up to 5 $M_{\odot}$ or more, although with questionable assumptions). Deeper observations are needed to constrain CO emission from the cool polar lobes.

Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, MNRAS accepted

Abstract: 1712.01757
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Title: Energy Calibration of CALET Onboard the International Space Station

Authors: Y. Asaoka, Y. Akaike, Y. Komiya, R. Miyata, S. Torii, O. Adriani, K. Asano, M.G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W.R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J.H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M.L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T.G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M.H. Israel, A. Javaid, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, H. Kitamura, H.S. Krawczynski, J.F. Krizmanic, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P.S. Marrocchesi, A.M. Messineo, J.W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, A.A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H.M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, Y.E. Nakagawa, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J.F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, et al. (28 additional authors not shown)
Abstract: In August 2015, the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET), designed for long exposure observations of high energy cosmic rays, docked with the International Space Station (ISS) and shortly thereafter began tocollect data. CALET will measure the cosmic ray electron spectrum over the energy range of 1 GeV to 20 TeV with a very high resolution of 2% above 100 GeV, based on a dedicated instrument incorporating an exceptionally thick 30 radiation-length calorimeter with both total absorption and imaging (TASC and IMC) units. Each TASC readout channel must be carefully calibrated over the extremely wide dynamic range of CALET that spans six orders of magnitude in order to obtain a degree of calibration accuracy matching the resolution of energy measurements. These calibrations consist of calculating the conversion factors between ADC units and energy deposits, ensuring linearity over each gain range, and providing a seamless transition between neighboring gain ranges. This paper describes these calibration methods in detail, along with the resulting data and associated accuracies. The results presented in this paper show that a sufficient accuracy was achieved for the calibrations of each channel in order to obtain a suitable resolution over the entire dynamic range of the electron spectrum measurement.

Comments: 13 pages, 11 figures, published online 4 March 2017

Abstract: 1712.01866
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Title: Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Discovers A r_p = 1 Kpc Dual Active Galactic Nucleus in the Minor Galaxy Merger SDSS J0924+0510 at z = 0.1495

Authors: Xin Liu (UIUC), Hengxiao Guo (NCSA), Yue Shen (UIUC), Jenny E. Greene (Princeton), Michael A. Strauss (Princeton)
Abstract: Kiloparsec-scale dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are active supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs co-rotating in galaxies with separations of less than a few kpc. Dual AGNs are expected to be a generic outcome of hierarchical galaxy formation, but their frequency and demographics remain uncertain. We have carried out an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of AGNs with double-peaked narrow [O III] emission lines to systematically identify kpc dual AGNs. HST/WFC3 offers high image quality in the near infrared (NIR) to resolve the two stellar nuclei and in the optical to resolve [O III] from ionized gas in the narrow-line regions, both expected to be associated with the two SMBHs. This combination has proven to be key in sorting out alternative scenarios. With HST/WFC3 we are able to explore a new population of close dual AGNs at more advanced merger stages than can be probed from the ground. Here we report the discovery of a dual AGN with a projected angular separation of 0."4 in the minor galaxy merger SDSS J0924+0510 at redshift z = 0.1495, corresponding to a projected physical separation of r_p = 1 kpc. This serves as a proof of concept for combining high-resolution NIR and optical imaging to identify close dual AGNs. Our result suggests that studies based on low-resolution and/or low-sensitivity observations may miss close dual AGNs and thereby may underestimate their occurrence rate on <~ kpc scales.

Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures, submitted to AAS journals; comments welcome

Abstract: 1712.01972
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Title: Detection of new eruptions in the Magellanic Clouds LBVs R 40 and R 110

Abstract: We performed a spectroscopic and photometric analysis to study new eruptions in two luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Magellanic Clouds. We detected a strong new eruption in the LBV R40 that reached $V \sim 9.2$ in 2016, which is around $1.3$ mag brighter than the minimum registered in 1985. During this new eruption, the star changed from an A-type to a late F-type spectrum. Based on photometric and spectroscopic empirical calibrations and synthetic spectral modeling, we determine that R\,40 reached $T_{\mathrm{eff}} = 5800-6300$~K during this new eruption. This object is thereby probably one of the coolest identified LBVs. We could also identify an enrichment of nitrogen and r- and s-process elements. We detected a weak eruption in the LBV R 110 with a maximum of $V \sim 9.9$ mag in 2011, that is, around $1.0$ mag brighter than in the quiescent phase. On the other hand, this new eruption is about $0.2$ mag fainter than the first eruption detected in 1990, but the temperature did not decrease below 8500 K. Spitzer spectra show indications of cool dust in the circumstellar environment of both stars, but no hot or warm dust was present, except by the probable presence of PAHs in R\,110. We also discuss a possible post-red supergiant nature for both stars.

Abstract: 1712.02011
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Title: Muon detector for the COSINE-100 experiment

Abstract: The COSINE-100 dark matter search experiment has started taking physics data with the goal of performing an independent measurement of the annual modulation signal observed by DAMA/LIBRA. A muon detector was constructed by using plastic scintillator panels in the outermost layer of the shield surrounding the COSINE-100 detector. It is used to detect cosmic ray muons in order to understand the impact of the muon annual modulation on dark matter analysis. Assembly and initial performance test of each module have been performed at a ground laboratory. The installation of the detector in Yangyang Underground Laboratory (Y2L) was completed in the summer of 2016. Using three months of data, the muon underground flux was measured to be 328 $\pm$ 1(stat.)$\pm$ 10(syst.) muons/m$^2$/day. In this report, the assembly of the muon detector and the results from the analysis are presented.

Comments: 11 pages, 19 figures

Abstract: 1712.02343
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Title: Pulsar science with data from the Large European Array for Pulsars

Abstract: The Large European Array for Pulsars (LEAP) is a European Pulsar Timing Array project that combines the Lovell, Effelsberg, Nan\c{c}ay, Sardinia, and Westerbork radio telescopes into a single tied-array, and makes monthly observations of a set of millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The overview of our experiment is presented in Bassa et al. (2016). Baseband data are recorded at a central frequency of 1396 MHz and a bandwidth of 128 MHz at each telescope, and are correlated offline on a cluster at Jodrell Bank Observatory using a purpose-built correlator, detailed in Smits et al. (2017). LEAP offers a substantial increase in sensitivity over that of the individual telescopes, and can operate in timing and imaging modes (notably in observations of the galactic centre radio magnetar; Wucknitz 2015). To date, 4 years of observations have been reduced. Here, we report on the scientific projects which have made use of LEAP data.

Comments: 2 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in the proceedings of IAU Symposium 337 - Pulsar Astrophysics: The Next Fifty Years

Abstract: 1712.02349
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Title: The long-term optical evolution of the black hole candidate MAXI J1659-152

Abstract: We present 5 years of optical and infrared data of the black hole candidate MAXI J1659-152 covering its 2010 outburst, decay and quiescence. Combining optical data taken during the outburst decay, we obtain an orbital period of 2.414 $\pm$ 0.005 h, in perfect agreement with the value previously measured from X-ray dips. In addition, we detect a clear H$\alpha$ excess in MAXI J1659-152 with data taken during the outburst decay. We also detect a single hump modulation most likely produced by irradiation. Assuming that the maximum occurs at orbital phase 0.5, we constrain the phase of the X-ray dips to be ~ 0.65. We also detect the quiescent optical counterpart at r' = 24.20 $\pm$ 0.08, I = 23.32 $\pm$ 0.02 and H = 20.7 $\pm$ 0.1. These magnitudes provide colour indices implying an M2-M5 donor star assuming 60% contribution from a disc component in the r'-band.

Comments: 10 pages, 7 figures and 2 tables. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

Abstract: 1712.02678
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Title: Glimpses of the past activity of Sgr A* inferred from X-ray echoes in Sgr C

Abstract: For a decade now, evidence has accumulated that giant molecular clouds located within the central molecular zone of our Galaxy reflect X-rays coming from past outbursts of the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. However, the number of illuminating events as well as their ages and durations are still unresolved questions. We aim to reconstruct parts of the history of Sgr A* by studying this reflection phenomenon in the molecular complex Sgr C and by determining the line-of-sight positions of its main bright substructures. Using observations made with XMM-Newton and Chandra between 2000 and 2014, we investigated the variability of the reflected emission. We carried out an imaging and a spectral analysis. We also used a Monte Carlo model of the reflected spectra to constrain the line-of-sight positions of the brightest clumps, and hence to assign an approximate date to the associated illuminating events. We show that the emission from Sgr C exhibits significant variability in both space and time, which confirms its reflection origin. The most likely illuminating source is Sgr A*. We report two distinct variability timescales, as one clump undergoes a sudden rise and fall in about 2005, while two others vary smoothly throughout the whole 2000-2014 period. By fitting the Monte Carlo model to the data, we are able to place tight constraints on the 3D positions of the clumps. These two independent approaches provide a consistent picture of the past activity of Sgr A*, since the two slowly varying clumps are located on the same wavefront, while the rapidly varying clump corresponds to a different wavefront, that is, to a different illuminating event. We show that Sgr A* experienced at least two powerful outbursts in the past 300 years, and for the first time, we provide an estimation of their age. Extending this approach to other molecular complexes will allow this scenario to be tested further.

Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures; accepted for publication in A&A

Abstract: 1712.03178
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Title: Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays: Physics Challenges for AMS-02

Abstract: The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a new generation high-energy physics experiment installed on the International Space Station in May 2011 and operating continuously since then. Using an unprecedently large collection of particles and antiparticles detected in space, AMS is performing precision measurements of cosmic ray energy spectra and composition. In this paper, we discuss the physics of solar modulation in Galactic cosmic rays that can be investigated with AMS my means of dedicated measurements on the time-dependence of cosmic-ray proton, helium, electron and positron fluxes.

Comments: Proceedings of the 18th Lomonosov Conference - 2017, Moscow, Russia

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