Abstracts of Interest

Selected by: Jarryd Day


Abstract: 1804.01986
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: The Revolution Revolution: magnetic morphology driven spin-down

Abstract: Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of rotation periods that has been difficult to explain with existing stellar spin-down models. Detailed MHD stellar wind simulations have demonstrated that surface magnetic field morphology has a strong influence on wind-driven angular momentum loss. Observations suggest that faster rotating stars store a larger fraction of their magnetic flux in higher-order multipolar components of the magnetic field. In this work, we present a new model for stellar spin-down that, for the first time, accounts for the stellar surface magnetic field configuration. We show how a magnetic complexity that evolves from complex toward simple configurations as a star spins down can explain the salient features of stellar rotation evolution, including the bimodal distribution of both slow and fast rotators seen in young open clusters.

Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, submitted to ApJ


Abstract: 1804.02016
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A New Look at an Old Cluster: The Membership, Rotation, and Magnetic Activity of Low-Mass Stars in the 1.3-Gyr-Old Open Cluster NGC 752

Authors: Marcel Agüeros, Emily Bowsher (Columbia), John Bochanski (Rider), Phill Cargile (CfA), Kevin Covey (Western Washington), Stephanie Douglas (CfA), Adam Kraus (UT Austin), Alisha Kundert (UW Madison), Nicholas Law (UNC Chapel Hill), Aida Ahmadi (Calgary), Héctor Arce (Yale)
Abstract: The nearby open cluster NGC 752 presents a rare opportunity to study stellar properties at ages >1 Gyr. However, constructing a membership catalog for it is challenging; most surveys have been limited to identifying its giants and dwarf members earlier than mid-K. We supplement past membership catalogs with candidates selected with updated photometric and proper-motion criteria, generating a list of 258 members, a >50% increase over previous catalogs. Using a Bayesian framework to fit MESA Isochrones & Stellar Tracks evolutionary models to literature photometry and the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution data available for 59 cluster members, we infer the age of, and distance to, NGC 752: 1.34$\pm$0.06 Gyr and 438$_{-6}^{+8}$ pc. We also report the results of our optical monitoring of the cluster using the Palomar Transient Factory. We obtain rotation periods for 12 K and M cluster members, the first periods measured for such low-mass stars with a well-constrained age >1 Gyr. We compare these new periods to data from the younger clusters Praesepe and NGC 6811, and to a theoretical model for angular-momentum loss, to examine stellar spin down for low-mass stars over their first 1.3 Gyr. While on average NGC 752 stars are rotating more slowly than their younger counterparts, the difference is not significant. Finally, we use our spectroscopic observations to measure Halpha for cluster stars, finding that members earlier than $\approx$M2 are magnetically inactive, as expected at this age. Forthcoming Gaia data should solidify and extend the membership of NGC 752 to lower masses, thereby increasing its importance for studies of low-mass stars.

Comments: Accepted to ApJ. This version 23 pages, 15 figures; on-line version will include 11 more figures as well as light curve data for the 12 rotators we identify


Abstract: 1804.02019
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A HARDCORE model for constraining an exoplanet's core size

Abstract: The interior structure of an exoplanet is hidden from direct view yet likely plays a crucial role in influencing the habitability of the Earth analogues. Inferences of the interior structure are impeded by a fundamental degeneracy that exists between any model comprising more than two layers and observations constraining just two bulk parameters: mass and radius. In this work, we show that although the inverse problem is indeed degenerate, there exists two boundary conditions that enables one to infer the minimum and maximum core radius fraction, CRFmin and CRFmax. These hold true even for planets with light volatile envelopes, but require the planet to be fully differentiated and that layers denser than iron are forbidden. With both bounds in hand, a marginal CRF can also be inferred by sampling in-between. After validating on the Earth, we apply our method to Kepler-36b and measure CRFmin = (0.50 +/- 0.07), CRFmax = (0.78 +/- 0.02), and CRFmarg = (0.64 +/- 0.11), broadly consistent with the Earth's true CRF value of 0.55. We apply our method to a suite of hypothetical measurements of synthetic planets to serve as a sensitivity analysis. We find that CRFmin and CRFmax have recovered uncertainties proportional to the relative error on the planetary density, but CRFmarg saturates to between 0.03 and 0.16 once delta rho/rho drops below 1-2 per cent. This implies that mass and radius alone cannot provide any better constraints on internal composition once bulk density constraints hit around a per cent, providing a clear target for observers.

Comments: fixed some typos


Abstract: 1804.02054
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Outflows in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1566 as revealed by molecular (ALMA) and ionized gas (Gemini-GMOS/IFU) kinematics

Abstract: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of molecular and ionized gas in a sample of active galaxies, to quantify the nuclear inflows and outflows. Here, we analyze the nuclear kinematics of NGC 1566 via ALMA observations of the CO J:2-1 emission at 24 pc spatial and $\sim$2.6 km s$^{-1}$ spectral resolution, and Gemini-GMOS/IFU observations of ionized gas emission lines and stellar absorption lines at similar spatial resolution, and 123 km s$^{-1}$ of intrinsic spectral resolution. The morphology and kinematics of stellar, molecular (CO) and ionized ([N II]) emission lines are compared to the expectations from rotation, outflows, and streaming inflows. While both ionized and molecular gas show rotation signatures, there are significant non-circular motions in the innermost 200 pc and along spiral arms in the central kpc (CO). The nucleus shows a double-peaked CO profile (Full Width at Zero Intensity of 200 km s$^{-1}$), and prominent ($\sim$80 km s$^{-1}$) blue and redshifted lobes are found along the minor axis in the inner arcseconds. Perturbations by the large-scale bar can qualitatively explain all features in the observed velocity field. We thus favour the presence of a molecular outflow in the disk with true velocities of $\sim$180 km s$^{-1}$ in the nucleus and decelerating to 0 by $\sim$72 pc. The implied molecular outflow rate is $5.6~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$, with this gas accumulating in the nuclear 2 arcsec arms. The ionized gas kinematics support an interpretation of a similar, but more spherical, outflow in the inner 100 pc, with no signs of deceleration. There is some evidence of streaming inflows of $\sim$50 km s$^{-1}$ along specific spiral arms, and the estimated molecular mass inflow rate, $\sim0.1~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$, is significantly larger than the SMBH accretion rate ($\dot{m}=4.8\times10^{-5}~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$).

Comments: 23 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in A&A


Abstract: 1804.02070
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Magnetic fields in Bok globules: Multi-wavelength polarimetry as tracer across large spatial scales

Abstract: The role of magnetic fields in the process of star formation is a matter of continuous debate. Clear observational proof of the general influence of magnetic fields on the early phase of cloud collapse is still pending. First results on Bok globules with simple structures indicate dominant magnetic fields across large spatial scales (Bertrang et al. 2014) The aim of this study is to test the magnetic field influence across Bok globules with more complex density structures. We apply near-infrared polarimetry to trace the magnetic field structure on scales of 10^4-10^5 au in selected Bok globules. The combination of these measurements with archival data in the optical and sub-mm wavelength range allows us to characterize the magnetic field on scales of 10^3-10^6 au. We present polarimetric data in the near-infrared wavelength range for the three Bok globules CB34, CB56, and [OMK2002]18, combined with archival polarimetric data in the optical wavelength range for CB34 and CB56, and in the sub-millimeter wavelength range for CB34 and [OMK2002]18. We find a strong polarization signal (P > 2%) in the near-infrared for all three globules. For CB34, we detect a connection between the structure on scales of 10^4-10^5 au to 10^5-10^6 au. For CB56, we trace aligned polarization vectors in both the near-infrared and optical data, suggesting a connection of the magnetic field structure across the whole globule. In the case of [OMK2002]18, we find ordered polarization structures on scales of 10^4-10^5 au. We find strongly aligned polarization vectors on large scales which indicate dominant magnetic fields across Bok globules of complex density structures.

Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures; Submitted to A&A


Abstract: 1804.02083
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Forming Super Star Clusters Power the Central Starburst in NGC 253

Abstract: NGC 253 hosts the nearest bar-fed nuclear starburst. Previous observations show a region rich in molecular gas, with dense clouds and clumps associated with recent star formation. We used ALMA to image the 350 GHz dust continuum and molecular line emission from this region at 2 pc resolution. Our observations reveal 14 bright, compact (~2-3 pc FWHM) knots of dust emission. We argue that most of these sources are likely to be forming super star clusters (SSCs) based on their inferred dynamical and gas masses, association with 36 GHz radio continuum emission, and coincidence with line emission tracing dense, excited gas. One source coincides with a known SSC, but the rest remain largely invisible in Hubble near-IR imaging. Our observations show the presence of dense, highly-excited gas in these objects and imply that gas still makes up a large fraction of their overall mass. The high brightness temperature of the sources even at 350 GHz implies a large optical depth near the peak of the infrared (IR) SED. This suggests that these sources may have large IR photospheres and that the IR radiation force likely exceeds L/c. Still, their moderate observed velocity dispersions suggest that feedback from radiation, winds, and supernovae are not yet disrupting most sources. Several lines of argument suggest that this mode of star formation may produce most of the stars in the burst. We argue for a scenario in which this phase lasts ~1 Myr, after which the clusters shed their natal cocoons but continue to produce ionizing photons and starlight. The strong feedback that drives the observed cold gas and X-ray outflows then likely occurs after the clusters emerge from this early phase.

Comments: 18 pages, 5 figures, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, comments welcome


Abstract: 1804.02104
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: GRB120729A: external shock origin for both the prompt gamma-ray emission and afterglow

Authors: Li-Ye Huang (GXU), Xiang-Gao Wang (GXU), WeiKang Zheng (UCB), En-Wei Liang (GXU), Da-bin Lin (GXU), Shi-Qing Zhong (GXU), Hai-Ming Zhang (GXU), Xiao-Li Huang (GXU), Alexei V. Filippenko (UCB), Bing Zhang (UNLV)
Abstract: Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 120729A was detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, and then rapidly observed by Swift/XRT, Swift/UVOT, and ground-based telescopes. It had a single long and smooth \gamma-ray emission pulse, which extends continuously to the X-rays. We report Lick/KAIT observations of the source, and make temporal and spectral joint fits of the multiwavelength light curves of GRB 120729A. It exhibits achromatic light-curve behavior, consistent with the predictions of the external shock model. The light curves are decomposed into four typical phases: onset bump (Phase I), normal decay (Phase II), shallow decay (Phase III), and post-jet break (Phase IV). The spectral energy distribution (SED) evolves from prompt \gamma-ray emission to the afterglow with photon index from $\Gamma_{\rm \gamma}=1.36$ to $\Gamma \approx 1.75$. There is no obvious evolution of the SED during the afterglow. The multiwavelength light curves from \gamma-ray to optical can be well modeled with an external shock by considering energy injection, and a time-dependent microphysics model with $\epsilon_B\propto t^{\alpha_B}$ for the emission at early times, $T < T_{\rm 0} + 157$~s. Therefore, we conclude that both the prompt \gamma-ray emission and afterglow of GRB 120729A have the same external shock physical origin. Our model indicates that the $\epsilon_B$ evolution can be described as a broken power-law function with $\alpha_{\rm B,1} = 0.18 \pm 0.04$ and $\alpha_{\rm B,2} = 0.84 \pm 0.04$. We also systematically investigate single-pulse GRBs in the Swift era, finding that only a small fraction of GRBs (GRBs 120729A, 051111, and 070318) are likely to originate from an external shock for both the prompt \gamma-ray emission and afterglow.

Comments: 23 pages, 9 figures,Accepted for publication in ApJ


Abstract: 1804.02132
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A First Catalog of Variable Stars Measured by the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS)

Abstract: The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) carries out its primary planetary defense mission by surveying about 13000 deg^2 at least four times per night. The resulting data set is useful for the discovery of variable stars to a magnitude limit fainter than r~18, with amplitudes down to 0.01 mag for bright objects. Here we present a Data Release One catalog of variable stars based on analyzing 142 million stars measured at least 100 times in the first two years of ATLAS operations. Using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram and other variability metrics, we identify 4.7 million candidate variables which we analyze in detail. Through Space Telescope Science Institute, we publicly release lightcurves for all of them, together with a vector of 169 classification features for each star. We do this at the level of unconfirmed candidate variables in order to provide the community with a large set of homogeneously analyzed photometry and avoid pre-judging which types of objects others may find most interesting. We use machine learning to classify the candidates into fifteen different broad categories based on lightcurve morphology. About 10% (430,000 stars) pass extensive tests designed to screen out spurious variability detections: we label these as `probable' variables. Of these, 230,000 receive specific classifications as eclipsing binaries, pulsating, Mira-type, or sinusoidal variables: these are the `classified' variables. New discoveries among the probable variables number more than 300,000, while 150,000 of the classified variables are new, including about 10,000 pulsating variables, 2,000 Mira stars, and 70,000 eclipsing binaries.

Comments: Submitted to ApJ, gives instructions for querying ATLAS variable star database


Abstract: 1804.02180
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A direct dark matter search in XMASS-I

Abstract: A search for dark matter using an underground single-phase liquid xenon detector was conducted at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan, particularly for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). We have used 705.9 live days of data in a fiducial volume containing 97 kg of liquid xenon at the center of the detector. The event rate in the fiducial volume after the data reduction was ${\rm (4.2 \pm 0.2) \times 10^{-3} \, day^{-1}kg^{-1} keV_{ee}^{-1}}$ at ${\rm 5 \, keV_{ee}}$, with a signal efficiency of ${\rm 20\%}$. All the remaining events are consistent with our background evaluation, mostly of the "mis-reconstructed events" originated from $^{210}$Pb in the copper plates lining the detector's inner surface. The obtained upper limit on a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section was ${\rm 2.2 \times 10^{-44} \, cm^{2}}$ for a WIMP mass of ${\rm 60 \, GeV/c^{2}}$ at the $90\%$ confidence level.

Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures


Abstract: 1804.02250
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Absorption by Spinning Dust: a Contaminant for High-Redshift 21 cm Observations

Authors: B. T. Draine (Princeton Univ.), Jordi Miralda-Escudé (Universitat de Barcelona)
Abstract: Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the EDGES experiment has reported 21\,cm absorption at $z \approx 17$, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii $a \approx 50\AA$ in the cold interstellar medium at temperature $T \approx 50$ K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

Comments: 9 pages. submitted to ApJL


Abstract: 1804.02281
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Mass loss and magnetospheres of massive stars

Abstract: About ten percent of all OB stars show strong, large-scale surface magnetic fields. The interaction of the magnetic field and the wind is believed to be the cause for the X-ray emission shown by these objects. We therefore run numerical simulations in two dimensions for a number the O-type stars and Wolf Rayet stars to study the interaction of the stellar magnetic fields of these stars with their winds. While weak, dipolar magnetic fields leave the wind largely unmodified and the field opens up and becomes a split monopole, the interaction between magnetic field and outflowing gas is more complex as the magnetic field remains closed in some regions and outflowing gas can be trapped. We use the Nirvana MHD code with adaptive mesh refinement to study this interaction with high numerical resolution to model cases with confinement parameters up to $10^4$.



Abstract: 1804.02351
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Bound on a diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the ADD model

Abstract: The search for ultra-high energy downward-going and Earth-skimming cosmic neutrinos by the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) is analyzed in the ADD model with n extra flat spatial dimensions. We assumed that the diffuse neutrino flux dN_nu/dE_nu$ is equal to k E_nu^(-20) in the energy range 10^(17) eV - 2.5 10^(19) eV. Taking into account that no neutrino events where found by the PAO, we have estimated an upper bound on a value of k. It is shown that this bound can be stronger than the upper bound on k recently obtained by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, depending on n and (n+4)-dimensional gravity scale M_D.

Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures


This page created: Tue Apr 17 10:19:18 ACST 2018 by Jarryd Day

For a printable title listing click here
For details on generating this page see the instructions. If there are problems with this page (and I expect there will be from time to time) contact Jose.

For previous lists of abstracts of interest click Previous abstracts of interest
Jarryd Day

Abstract: 1804.01986
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02016
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02019
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02054
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02070
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02083
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02104
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02132
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02180
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02250
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02281
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02351
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


This page created: Tue Apr 17 10:24:48 CST 2018 by Jarryd Day

For a printable title listing click here
For details on generating this page see the instructions. If there are problems with this page (and I expect there will be from time to time) contact Jose.

For previous lists of abstracts of interest click Previous abstracts of interest
Jarryd Day

Abstract: 1804.01986
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02016
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02019
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02054
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02070
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02083
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02104
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02132
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02180
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02250
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02281
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


Abstract: 1804.02351
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]


This page created: Tue Apr 17 10:26:04 CST 2018 by Jarryd Day

For a printable title listing click here
For details on generating this page see the instructions. If there are problems with this page (and I expect there will be from time to time) contact Jose.

For previous lists of abstracts of interest click Previous abstracts of interest
Jarryd Day

Abstract: 1804.01986
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: The Revolution Revolution: magnetic morphology driven spin-down

Authors: C. Garraffo, J. J. Drake, A. Dotter, J. Choi, D. J. Burke, S. P. Moschou, J. D. Alvarado-Gomez, V. L. Kashyap, O. Cohen
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of rotation periods that has been difficult to explain with existing stellar spin-down models. Detailed MHD stellar wind simulations have demonstrated that surface magnetic field morphology has a strong influence on wind-driven angular momentum loss. Observations suggest that faster rotating stars store a larger fraction of their magnetic flux in higher-order multipolar components of the magnetic field. In this work, we present a new model for stellar spin-down that, for the first time, accounts for the stellar surface magnetic field configuration. We show how a magnetic complexity that evolves from complex toward simple configurations as a star spins down can explain the salient features of stellar rotation evolution, including the bimodal distribution of both slow and fast rotators seen in young open clusters.

Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, submitted to ApJ


Abstract: 1804.02016
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A New Look at an Old Cluster: The Membership, Rotation, and Magnetic Activity of Low-Mass Stars in the 1.3-Gyr-Old Open Cluster NGC 752

Authors: Marcel Agüeros, Emily Bowsher (Columbia), John Bochanski (Rider), Phill Cargile (CfA), Kevin Covey (Western Washington), Stephanie Douglas (CfA), Adam Kraus (UT Austin), Alisha Kundert (UW Madison), Nicholas Law (UNC Chapel Hill), Aida Ahmadi (Calgary), Héctor Arce (Yale)
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: The nearby open cluster NGC 752 presents a rare opportunity to study stellar properties at ages >1 Gyr. However, constructing a membership catalog for it is challenging; most surveys have been limited to identifying its giants and dwarf members earlier than mid-K. We supplement past membership catalogs with candidates selected with updated photometric and proper-motion criteria, generating a list of 258 members, a >50% increase over previous catalogs. Using a Bayesian framework to fit MESA Isochrones & Stellar Tracks evolutionary models to literature photometry and the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution data available for 59 cluster members, we infer the age of, and distance to, NGC 752: 1.34$\pm$0.06 Gyr and 438$_{-6}^{+8}$ pc. We also report the results of our optical monitoring of the cluster using the Palomar Transient Factory. We obtain rotation periods for 12 K and M cluster members, the first periods measured for such low-mass stars with a well-constrained age >1 Gyr. We compare these new periods to data from the younger clusters Praesepe and NGC 6811, and to a theoretical model for angular-momentum loss, to examine stellar spin down for low-mass stars over their first 1.3 Gyr. While on average NGC 752 stars are rotating more slowly than their younger counterparts, the difference is not significant. Finally, we use our spectroscopic observations to measure Halpha for cluster stars, finding that members earlier than $\approx$M2 are magnetically inactive, as expected at this age. Forthcoming Gaia data should solidify and extend the membership of NGC 752 to lower masses, thereby increasing its importance for studies of low-mass stars.

Comments: Accepted to ApJ. This version 23 pages, 15 figures; on-line version will include 11 more figures as well as light curve data for the 12 rotators we identify


Abstract: 1804.02019
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A HARDCORE model for constraining an exoplanet's core size

Authors: Gabrielle Suissa, Jingjing Chen, David Kipping
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018 (v1), last revised 11 Apr 2018 (this version, v2))
Abstract: The interior structure of an exoplanet is hidden from direct view yet likely plays a crucial role in influencing the habitability of the Earth analogues. Inferences of the interior structure are impeded by a fundamental degeneracy that exists between any model comprising more than two layers and observations constraining just two bulk parameters: mass and radius. In this work, we show that although the inverse problem is indeed degenerate, there exists two boundary conditions that enables one to infer the minimum and maximum core radius fraction, CRFmin and CRFmax. These hold true even for planets with light volatile envelopes, but require the planet to be fully differentiated and that layers denser than iron are forbidden. With both bounds in hand, a marginal CRF can also be inferred by sampling in-between. After validating on the Earth, we apply our method to Kepler-36b and measure CRFmin = (0.50 +/- 0.07), CRFmax = (0.78 +/- 0.02), and CRFmarg = (0.64 +/- 0.11), broadly consistent with the Earth's true CRF value of 0.55. We apply our method to a suite of hypothetical measurements of synthetic planets to serve as a sensitivity analysis. We find that CRFmin and CRFmax have recovered uncertainties proportional to the relative error on the planetary density, but CRFmarg saturates to between 0.03 and 0.16 once delta rho/rho drops below 1-2 per cent. This implies that mass and radius alone cannot provide any better constraints on internal composition once bulk density constraints hit around a per cent, providing a clear target for observers.

Comments: fixed some typos


Abstract: 1804.02054
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Outflows in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1566 as revealed by molecular (ALMA) and ionized gas (Gemini-GMOS/IFU) kinematics

Authors: R. Slater, C. Finlez, N. M. Nagar, A. Schnorr-Müller, T. Storchi-Bergmann, D. Lena, V. Ramakrishnan, C. G. Mundell, R. A. Riffel, B. Peterson, A. Robinson, G. Orellana
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of molecular and ionized gas in a sample of active galaxies, to quantify the nuclear inflows and outflows. Here, we analyze the nuclear kinematics of NGC 1566 via ALMA observations of the CO J:2-1 emission at 24 pc spatial and $\sim$2.6 km s$^{-1}$ spectral resolution, and Gemini-GMOS/IFU observations of ionized gas emission lines and stellar absorption lines at similar spatial resolution, and 123 km s$^{-1}$ of intrinsic spectral resolution. The morphology and kinematics of stellar, molecular (CO) and ionized ([N II]) emission lines are compared to the expectations from rotation, outflows, and streaming inflows. While both ionized and molecular gas show rotation signatures, there are significant non-circular motions in the innermost 200 pc and along spiral arms in the central kpc (CO). The nucleus shows a double-peaked CO profile (Full Width at Zero Intensity of 200 km s$^{-1}$), and prominent ($\sim$80 km s$^{-1}$) blue and redshifted lobes are found along the minor axis in the inner arcseconds. Perturbations by the large-scale bar can qualitatively explain all features in the observed velocity field. We thus favour the presence of a molecular outflow in the disk with true velocities of $\sim$180 km s$^{-1}$ in the nucleus and decelerating to 0 by $\sim$72 pc. The implied molecular outflow rate is $5.6~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$, with this gas accumulating in the nuclear 2 arcsec arms. The ionized gas kinematics support an interpretation of a similar, but more spherical, outflow in the inner 100 pc, with no signs of deceleration. There is some evidence of streaming inflows of $\sim$50 km s$^{-1}$ along specific spiral arms, and the estimated molecular mass inflow rate, $\sim0.1~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$, is significantly larger than the SMBH accretion rate ($\dot{m}=4.8\times10^{-5}~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$).

Comments: 23 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in A&A


Abstract: 1804.02070
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Magnetic fields in Bok globules: Multi-wavelength polarimetry as tracer across large spatial scales

Authors: Sebastian Jorquera, Gesa H.-M. Bertrang
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018 (v1), last revised 9 Apr 2018 (this version, v2))
Abstract: The role of magnetic fields in the process of star formation is a matter of continuous debate. Clear observational proof of the general influence of magnetic fields on the early phase of cloud collapse is still pending. First results on Bok globules with simple structures indicate dominant magnetic fields across large spatial scales (Bertrang et al. 2014) The aim of this study is to test the magnetic field influence across Bok globules with more complex density structures. We apply near-infrared polarimetry to trace the magnetic field structure on scales of 10^4-10^5 au in selected Bok globules. The combination of these measurements with archival data in the optical and sub-mm wavelength range allows us to characterize the magnetic field on scales of 10^3-10^6 au. We present polarimetric data in the near-infrared wavelength range for the three Bok globules CB34, CB56, and [OMK2002]18, combined with archival polarimetric data in the optical wavelength range for CB34 and CB56, and in the sub-millimeter wavelength range for CB34 and [OMK2002]18. We find a strong polarization signal (P > 2%) in the near-infrared for all three globules. For CB34, we detect a connection between the structure on scales of 10^4-10^5 au to 10^5-10^6 au. For CB56, we trace aligned polarization vectors in both the near-infrared and optical data, suggesting a connection of the magnetic field structure across the whole globule. In the case of [OMK2002]18, we find ordered polarization structures on scales of 10^4-10^5 au. We find strongly aligned polarization vectors on large scales which indicate dominant magnetic fields across Bok globules of complex density structures.

Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures; Submitted to A&A


Abstract: 1804.02083
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Forming Super Star Clusters Power the Central Starburst in NGC 253

Authors: Adam K. Leroy, Alberto D. Bolatto, Eve C. Ostriker, Fabian Walter, Mark Gorski, Adam Ginsburg, Nico Krieger, David S. Meier, Elisabeth Mills, Juergen Ott, Erik Rosolowsky, Todd A. Thompson, Sylvain Veilleux, Laura K. Zschaechner
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: NGC 253 hosts the nearest bar-fed nuclear starburst. Previous observations show a region rich in molecular gas, with dense clouds and clumps associated with recent star formation. We used ALMA to image the 350 GHz dust continuum and molecular line emission from this region at 2 pc resolution. Our observations reveal 14 bright, compact (~2-3 pc FWHM) knots of dust emission. We argue that most of these sources are likely to be forming super star clusters (SSCs) based on their inferred dynamical and gas masses, association with 36 GHz radio continuum emission, and coincidence with line emission tracing dense, excited gas. One source coincides with a known SSC, but the rest remain largely invisible in Hubble near-IR imaging. Our observations show the presence of dense, highly-excited gas in these objects and imply that gas still makes up a large fraction of their overall mass. The high brightness temperature of the sources even at 350 GHz implies a large optical depth near the peak of the infrared (IR) SED. This suggests that these sources may have large IR photospheres and that the IR radiation force likely exceeds L/c. Still, their moderate observed velocity dispersions suggest that feedback from radiation, winds, and supernovae are not yet disrupting most sources. Several lines of argument suggest that this mode of star formation may produce most of the stars in the burst. We argue for a scenario in which this phase lasts ~1 Myr, after which the clusters shed their natal cocoons but continue to produce ionizing photons and starlight. The strong feedback that drives the observed cold gas and X-ray outflows then likely occurs after the clusters emerge from this early phase.

Comments: 18 pages, 5 figures, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, comments welcome


Abstract: 1804.02104
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: GRB120729A: external shock origin for both the prompt gamma-ray emission and afterglow

Authors: Li-Ye Huang (GXU), Xiang-Gao Wang (GXU), WeiKang Zheng (UCB), En-Wei Liang (GXU), Da-bin Lin (GXU), Shi-Qing Zhong (GXU), Hai-Ming Zhang (GXU), Xiao-Li Huang (GXU), Alexei V. Filippenko (UCB), Bing Zhang (UNLV)
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 120729A was detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, and then rapidly observed by Swift/XRT, Swift/UVOT, and ground-based telescopes. It had a single long and smooth \gamma-ray emission pulse, which extends continuously to the X-rays. We report Lick/KAIT observations of the source, and make temporal and spectral joint fits of the multiwavelength light curves of GRB 120729A. It exhibits achromatic light-curve behavior, consistent with the predictions of the external shock model. The light curves are decomposed into four typical phases: onset bump (Phase I), normal decay (Phase II), shallow decay (Phase III), and post-jet break (Phase IV). The spectral energy distribution (SED) evolves from prompt \gamma-ray emission to the afterglow with photon index from $\Gamma_{\rm \gamma}=1.36$ to $\Gamma \approx 1.75$. There is no obvious evolution of the SED during the afterglow. The multiwavelength light curves from \gamma-ray to optical can be well modeled with an external shock by considering energy injection, and a time-dependent microphysics model with $\epsilon_B\propto t^{\alpha_B}$ for the emission at early times, $T < T_{\rm 0} + 157$~s. Therefore, we conclude that both the prompt \gamma-ray emission and afterglow of GRB 120729A have the same external shock physical origin. Our model indicates that the $\epsilon_B$ evolution can be described as a broken power-law function with $\alpha_{\rm B,1} = 0.18 \pm 0.04$ and $\alpha_{\rm B,2} = 0.84 \pm 0.04$. We also systematically investigate single-pulse GRBs in the Swift era, finding that only a small fraction of GRBs (GRBs 120729A, 051111, and 070318) are likely to originate from an external shock for both the prompt \gamma-ray emission and afterglow.

Comments: 23 pages, 9 figures,Accepted for publication in ApJ


Abstract: 1804.02132
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A First Catalog of Variable Stars Measured by the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS)

Authors: A. N. Heinze, John L. Tonry, Larry Denneau, Heather Flewelling, Brian Stalder, Armin Rest, Ken W. Smith, Stephen J. Smartt, Henry Weiland
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) carries out its primary planetary defense mission by surveying about 13000 deg^2 at least four times per night. The resulting data set is useful for the discovery of variable stars to a magnitude limit fainter than r~18, with amplitudes down to 0.01 mag for bright objects. Here we present a Data Release One catalog of variable stars based on analyzing 142 million stars measured at least 100 times in the first two years of ATLAS operations. Using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram and other variability metrics, we identify 4.7 million candidate variables which we analyze in detail. Through Space Telescope Science Institute, we publicly release lightcurves for all of them, together with a vector of 169 classification features for each star. We do this at the level of unconfirmed candidate variables in order to provide the community with a large set of homogeneously analyzed photometry and avoid pre-judging which types of objects others may find most interesting. We use machine learning to classify the candidates into fifteen different broad categories based on lightcurve morphology. About 10% (430,000 stars) pass extensive tests designed to screen out spurious variability detections: we label these as `probable' variables. Of these, 230,000 receive specific classifications as eclipsing binaries, pulsating, Mira-type, or sinusoidal variables: these are the `classified' variables. New discoveries among the probable variables number more than 300,000, while 150,000 of the classified variables are new, including about 10,000 pulsating variables, 2,000 Mira stars, and 70,000 eclipsing binaries.

Comments: Submitted to ApJ, gives instructions for querying ATLAS variable star database


Abstract: 1804.02180
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A direct dark matter search in XMASS-I

Authors: XMASS Collaboration
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: A search for dark matter using an underground single-phase liquid xenon detector was conducted at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan, particularly for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). We have used 705.9 live days of data in a fiducial volume containing 97 kg of liquid xenon at the center of the detector. The event rate in the fiducial volume after the data reduction was ${\rm (4.2 \pm 0.2) \times 10^{-3} \, day^{-1}kg^{-1} keV_{ee}^{-1}}$ at ${\rm 5 \, keV_{ee}}$, with a signal efficiency of ${\rm 20\%}$. All the remaining events are consistent with our background evaluation, mostly of the "mis-reconstructed events" originated from $^{210}$Pb in the copper plates lining the detector's inner surface. The obtained upper limit on a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section was ${\rm 2.2 \times 10^{-44} \, cm^{2}}$ for a WIMP mass of ${\rm 60 \, GeV/c^{2}}$ at the $90\%$ confidence level.

Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures


Abstract: 1804.02250
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Absorption by Spinning Dust: a Contaminant for High-Redshift 21 cm Observations

Authors: B. T. Draine (Princeton Univ.), Jordi Miralda-Escudé (Universitat de Barcelona)
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the EDGES experiment has reported 21\,cm absorption at $z \approx 17$, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii $a \approx 50\AA$ in the cold interstellar medium at temperature $T \approx 50$ K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

Comments: 9 pages. submitted to ApJL


Abstract: 1804.02281
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Mass loss and magnetospheres of massive stars

Authors: Manfred Küker
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: About ten percent of all OB stars show strong, large-scale surface magnetic fields. The interaction of the magnetic field and the wind is believed to be the cause for the X-ray emission shown by these objects. We therefore run numerical simulations in two dimensions for a number the O-type stars and Wolf Rayet stars to study the interaction of the stellar magnetic fields of these stars with their winds. While weak, dipolar magnetic fields leave the wind largely unmodified and the field opens up and becomes a split monopole, the interaction between magnetic field and outflowing gas is more complex as the magnetic field remains closed in some regions and outflowing gas can be trapped. We use the Nirvana MHD code with adaptive mesh refinement to study this interaction with high numerical resolution to model cases with confinement parameters up to $10^4$.



Abstract: 1804.02351
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Bound on a diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the ADD model

Authors: M.O. Astashenkov, A.V. Kisselev
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: The search for ultra-high energy downward-going and Earth-skimming cosmic neutrinos by the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) is analyzed in the ADD model with n extra flat spatial dimensions. We assumed that the diffuse neutrino flux dN_nu/dE_nu$ is equal to k E_nu^(-20) in the energy range 10^(17) eV - 2.5 10^(19) eV. Taking into account that no neutrino events where found by the PAO, we have estimated an upper bound on a value of k. It is shown that this bound can be stronger than the upper bound on k recently obtained by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, depending on n and (n+4)-dimensional gravity scale M_D.

Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures


This page created: Tue Apr 17 10:28:53 ACST 2018 by Jarryd Day

For a printable title listing click here
For details on generating this page see the instructions. If there are problems with this page (and I expect there will be from time to time) contact Jose.

For previous lists of abstracts of interest click Previous abstracts of interest
Jarryd Day

Abstract: 1804.01986
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: The Revolution Revolution: magnetic morphology driven spin-down

Authors: C. Garraffo, J. J. Drake, A. Dotter, J. Choi, D. J. Burke, S. P. Moschou, J. D. Alvarado-Gomez, V. L. Kashyap, O. Cohen
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of rotation periods that has been difficult to explain with existing stellar spin-down models. Detailed MHD stellar wind simulations have demonstrated that surface magnetic field morphology has a strong influence on wind-driven angular momentum loss. Observations suggest that faster rotating stars store a larger fraction of their magnetic flux in higher-order multipolar components of the magnetic field. In this work, we present a new model for stellar spin-down that, for the first time, accounts for the stellar surface magnetic field configuration. We show how a magnetic complexity that evolves from complex toward simple configurations as a star spins down can explain the salient features of stellar rotation evolution, including the bimodal distribution of both slow and fast rotators seen in young open clusters.

Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, submitted to ApJ


Abstract: 1804.02016
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A New Look at an Old Cluster: The Membership, Rotation, and Magnetic Activity of Low-Mass Stars in the 1.3-Gyr-Old Open Cluster NGC 752

Authors: Marcel Agüeros, Emily Bowsher (Columbia), John Bochanski (Rider), Phill Cargile (CfA), Kevin Covey (Western Washington), Stephanie Douglas (CfA), Adam Kraus (UT Austin), Alisha Kundert (UW Madison), Nicholas Law (UNC Chapel Hill), Aida Ahmadi (Calgary), Héctor Arce (Yale)
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: The nearby open cluster NGC 752 presents a rare opportunity to study stellar properties at ages >1 Gyr. However, constructing a membership catalog for it is challenging; most surveys have been limited to identifying its giants and dwarf members earlier than mid-K. We supplement past membership catalogs with candidates selected with updated photometric and proper-motion criteria, generating a list of 258 members, a >50% increase over previous catalogs. Using a Bayesian framework to fit MESA Isochrones & Stellar Tracks evolutionary models to literature photometry and the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution data available for 59 cluster members, we infer the age of, and distance to, NGC 752: 1.34$\pm$0.06 Gyr and 438$_{-6}^{+8}$ pc. We also report the results of our optical monitoring of the cluster using the Palomar Transient Factory. We obtain rotation periods for 12 K and M cluster members, the first periods measured for such low-mass stars with a well-constrained age >1 Gyr. We compare these new periods to data from the younger clusters Praesepe and NGC 6811, and to a theoretical model for angular-momentum loss, to examine stellar spin down for low-mass stars over their first 1.3 Gyr. While on average NGC 752 stars are rotating more slowly than their younger counterparts, the difference is not significant. Finally, we use our spectroscopic observations to measure Halpha for cluster stars, finding that members earlier than $\approx$M2 are magnetically inactive, as expected at this age. Forthcoming Gaia data should solidify and extend the membership of NGC 752 to lower masses, thereby increasing its importance for studies of low-mass stars.

Comments: Accepted to ApJ. This version 23 pages, 15 figures; on-line version will include 11 more figures as well as light curve data for the 12 rotators we identify


Abstract: 1804.02019
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A HARDCORE model for constraining an exoplanet's core size

Authors: Gabrielle Suissa, Jingjing Chen, David Kipping
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018 (v1), last revised 11 Apr 2018 (this version, v2))
Abstract: The interior structure of an exoplanet is hidden from direct view yet likely plays a crucial role in influencing the habitability of the Earth analogues. Inferences of the interior structure are impeded by a fundamental degeneracy that exists between any model comprising more than two layers and observations constraining just two bulk parameters: mass and radius. In this work, we show that although the inverse problem is indeed degenerate, there exists two boundary conditions that enables one to infer the minimum and maximum core radius fraction, CRFmin and CRFmax. These hold true even for planets with light volatile envelopes, but require the planet to be fully differentiated and that layers denser than iron are forbidden. With both bounds in hand, a marginal CRF can also be inferred by sampling in-between. After validating on the Earth, we apply our method to Kepler-36b and measure CRFmin = (0.50 +/- 0.07), CRFmax = (0.78 +/- 0.02), and CRFmarg = (0.64 +/- 0.11), broadly consistent with the Earth's true CRF value of 0.55. We apply our method to a suite of hypothetical measurements of synthetic planets to serve as a sensitivity analysis. We find that CRFmin and CRFmax have recovered uncertainties proportional to the relative error on the planetary density, but CRFmarg saturates to between 0.03 and 0.16 once delta rho/rho drops below 1-2 per cent. This implies that mass and radius alone cannot provide any better constraints on internal composition once bulk density constraints hit around a per cent, providing a clear target for observers.

Comments: fixed some typos


Abstract: 1804.02054
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Outflows in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1566 as revealed by molecular (ALMA) and ionized gas (Gemini-GMOS/IFU) kinematics

Authors: R. Slater, C. Finlez, N. M. Nagar, A. Schnorr-Müller, T. Storchi-Bergmann, D. Lena, V. Ramakrishnan, C. G. Mundell, R. A. Riffel, B. Peterson, A. Robinson, G. Orellana
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of molecular and ionized gas in a sample of active galaxies, to quantify the nuclear inflows and outflows. Here, we analyze the nuclear kinematics of NGC 1566 via ALMA observations of the CO J:2-1 emission at 24 pc spatial and $\sim$2.6 km s$^{-1}$ spectral resolution, and Gemini-GMOS/IFU observations of ionized gas emission lines and stellar absorption lines at similar spatial resolution, and 123 km s$^{-1}$ of intrinsic spectral resolution. The morphology and kinematics of stellar, molecular (CO) and ionized ([N II]) emission lines are compared to the expectations from rotation, outflows, and streaming inflows. While both ionized and molecular gas show rotation signatures, there are significant non-circular motions in the innermost 200 pc and along spiral arms in the central kpc (CO). The nucleus shows a double-peaked CO profile (Full Width at Zero Intensity of 200 km s$^{-1}$), and prominent ($\sim$80 km s$^{-1}$) blue and redshifted lobes are found along the minor axis in the inner arcseconds. Perturbations by the large-scale bar can qualitatively explain all features in the observed velocity field. We thus favour the presence of a molecular outflow in the disk with true velocities of $\sim$180 km s$^{-1}$ in the nucleus and decelerating to 0 by $\sim$72 pc. The implied molecular outflow rate is $5.6~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$, with this gas accumulating in the nuclear 2 arcsec arms. The ionized gas kinematics support an interpretation of a similar, but more spherical, outflow in the inner 100 pc, with no signs of deceleration. There is some evidence of streaming inflows of $\sim$50 km s$^{-1}$ along specific spiral arms, and the estimated molecular mass inflow rate, $\sim0.1~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$, is significantly larger than the SMBH accretion rate ($\dot{m}=4.8\times10^{-5}~[M_{o}yr^{-1}]$).

Comments: 23 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in A&A


Abstract: 1804.02070
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Magnetic fields in Bok globules: Multi-wavelength polarimetry as tracer across large spatial scales

Authors: Sebastian Jorquera, Gesa H.-M. Bertrang
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018 (v1), last revised 9 Apr 2018 (this version, v2))
Abstract: The role of magnetic fields in the process of star formation is a matter of continuous debate. Clear observational proof of the general influence of magnetic fields on the early phase of cloud collapse is still pending. First results on Bok globules with simple structures indicate dominant magnetic fields across large spatial scales (Bertrang et al. 2014) The aim of this study is to test the magnetic field influence across Bok globules with more complex density structures. We apply near-infrared polarimetry to trace the magnetic field structure on scales of 10^4-10^5 au in selected Bok globules. The combination of these measurements with archival data in the optical and sub-mm wavelength range allows us to characterize the magnetic field on scales of 10^3-10^6 au. We present polarimetric data in the near-infrared wavelength range for the three Bok globules CB34, CB56, and [OMK2002]18, combined with archival polarimetric data in the optical wavelength range for CB34 and CB56, and in the sub-millimeter wavelength range for CB34 and [OMK2002]18. We find a strong polarization signal (P > 2%) in the near-infrared for all three globules. For CB34, we detect a connection between the structure on scales of 10^4-10^5 au to 10^5-10^6 au. For CB56, we trace aligned polarization vectors in both the near-infrared and optical data, suggesting a connection of the magnetic field structure across the whole globule. In the case of [OMK2002]18, we find ordered polarization structures on scales of 10^4-10^5 au. We find strongly aligned polarization vectors on large scales which indicate dominant magnetic fields across Bok globules of complex density structures.

Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures; Submitted to A&A


Abstract: 1804.02083
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Forming Super Star Clusters Power the Central Starburst in NGC 253

Authors: Adam K. Leroy, Alberto D. Bolatto, Eve C. Ostriker, Fabian Walter, Mark Gorski, Adam Ginsburg, Nico Krieger, David S. Meier, Elisabeth Mills, Juergen Ott, Erik Rosolowsky, Todd A. Thompson, Sylvain Veilleux, Laura K. Zschaechner
(Submitted on 5 Apr 2018)
Abstract: NGC 253 hosts the nearest bar-fed nuclear starburst. Previous observations show a region rich in molecular gas, with dense clouds and clumps associated with recent star formation. We used ALMA to image the 350 GHz dust continuum and molecular line emission from this region at 2 pc resolution. Our observations reveal 14 bright, compact (~2-3 pc FWHM) knots of dust emission. We argue that most of these sources are likely to be forming super star clusters (SSCs) based on their inferred dynamical and gas masses, association with 36 GHz radio continuum emission, and coincidence with line emission tracing dense, excited gas. One source coincides with a known SSC, but the rest remain largely invisible in Hubble near-IR imaging. Our observations show the presence of dense, highly-excited gas in these objects and imply that gas still makes up a large fraction of their overall mass. The high brightness temperature of the sources even at 350 GHz implies a large optical depth near the peak of the infrared (IR) SED. This suggests that these sources may have large IR photospheres and that the IR radiation force likely exceeds L/c. Still, their moderate observed velocity dispersions suggest that feedback from radiation, winds, and supernovae are not yet disrupting most sources. Several lines of argument suggest that this mode of star formation may produce most of the stars in the burst. We argue for a scenario in which this phase lasts ~1 Myr, after which the clusters shed their natal cocoons but continue to produce ionizing photons and starlight. The strong feedback that drives the observed cold gas and X-ray outflows then likely occurs after the clusters emerge from this early phase.

Comments: 18 pages, 5 figures, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, comments welcome


Abstract: 1804.02104
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: GRB120729A: external shock origin for both the prompt gamma-ray emission and afterglow

Authors: Li-Ye Huang (GXU), Xiang-Gao Wang (GXU), WeiKang Zheng (UCB), En-Wei Liang (GXU), Da-bin Lin (GXU), Shi-Qing Zhong (GXU), Hai-Ming Zhang (GXU), Xiao-Li Huang (GXU), Alexei V. Filippenko (UCB), Bing Zhang (UNLV)
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 120729A was detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, and then rapidly observed by Swift/XRT, Swift/UVOT, and ground-based telescopes. It had a single long and smooth \gamma-ray emission pulse, which extends continuously to the X-rays. We report Lick/KAIT observations of the source, and make temporal and spectral joint fits of the multiwavelength light curves of GRB 120729A. It exhibits achromatic light-curve behavior, consistent with the predictions of the external shock model. The light curves are decomposed into four typical phases: onset bump (Phase I), normal decay (Phase II), shallow decay (Phase III), and post-jet break (Phase IV). The spectral energy distribution (SED) evolves from prompt \gamma-ray emission to the afterglow with photon index from $\Gamma_{\rm \gamma}=1.36$ to $\Gamma \approx 1.75$. There is no obvious evolution of the SED during the afterglow. The multiwavelength light curves from \gamma-ray to optical can be well modeled with an external shock by considering energy injection, and a time-dependent microphysics model with $\epsilon_B\propto t^{\alpha_B}$ for the emission at early times, $T < T_{\rm 0} + 157$~s. Therefore, we conclude that both the prompt \gamma-ray emission and afterglow of GRB 120729A have the same external shock physical origin. Our model indicates that the $\epsilon_B$ evolution can be described as a broken power-law function with $\alpha_{\rm B,1} = 0.18 \pm 0.04$ and $\alpha_{\rm B,2} = 0.84 \pm 0.04$. We also systematically investigate single-pulse GRBs in the Swift era, finding that only a small fraction of GRBs (GRBs 120729A, 051111, and 070318) are likely to originate from an external shock for both the prompt \gamma-ray emission and afterglow.

Comments: 23 pages, 9 figures,Accepted for publication in ApJ


Abstract: 1804.02132
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A First Catalog of Variable Stars Measured by the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS)

Authors: A. N. Heinze, John L. Tonry, Larry Denneau, Heather Flewelling, Brian Stalder, Armin Rest, Ken W. Smith, Stephen J. Smartt, Henry Weiland
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) carries out its primary planetary defense mission by surveying about 13000 deg^2 at least four times per night. The resulting data set is useful for the discovery of variable stars to a magnitude limit fainter than r~18, with amplitudes down to 0.01 mag for bright objects. Here we present a Data Release One catalog of variable stars based on analyzing 142 million stars measured at least 100 times in the first two years of ATLAS operations. Using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram and other variability metrics, we identify 4.7 million candidate variables which we analyze in detail. Through Space Telescope Science Institute, we publicly release lightcurves for all of them, together with a vector of 169 classification features for each star. We do this at the level of unconfirmed candidate variables in order to provide the community with a large set of homogeneously analyzed photometry and avoid pre-judging which types of objects others may find most interesting. We use machine learning to classify the candidates into fifteen different broad categories based on lightcurve morphology. About 10% (430,000 stars) pass extensive tests designed to screen out spurious variability detections: we label these as `probable' variables. Of these, 230,000 receive specific classifications as eclipsing binaries, pulsating, Mira-type, or sinusoidal variables: these are the `classified' variables. New discoveries among the probable variables number more than 300,000, while 150,000 of the classified variables are new, including about 10,000 pulsating variables, 2,000 Mira stars, and 70,000 eclipsing binaries.

Comments: Submitted to ApJ, gives instructions for querying ATLAS variable star database


Abstract: 1804.02180
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: A direct dark matter search in XMASS-I

Authors: XMASS Collaboration
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: A search for dark matter using an underground single-phase liquid xenon detector was conducted at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan, particularly for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). We have used 705.9 live days of data in a fiducial volume containing 97 kg of liquid xenon at the center of the detector. The event rate in the fiducial volume after the data reduction was ${\rm (4.2 \pm 0.2) \times 10^{-3} \, day^{-1}kg^{-1} keV_{ee}^{-1}}$ at ${\rm 5 \, keV_{ee}}$, with a signal efficiency of ${\rm 20\%}$. All the remaining events are consistent with our background evaluation, mostly of the "mis-reconstructed events" originated from $^{210}$Pb in the copper plates lining the detector's inner surface. The obtained upper limit on a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section was ${\rm 2.2 \times 10^{-44} \, cm^{2}}$ for a WIMP mass of ${\rm 60 \, GeV/c^{2}}$ at the $90\%$ confidence level.

Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures


Abstract: 1804.02250
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Absorption by Spinning Dust: a Contaminant for High-Redshift 21 cm Observations

Authors: B. T. Draine (Princeton Univ.), Jordi Miralda-Escudé (Universitat de Barcelona)
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the EDGES experiment has reported 21\,cm absorption at $z \approx 17$, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii $a \approx 50\AA$ in the cold interstellar medium at temperature $T \approx 50$ K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

Comments: 9 pages. submitted to ApJL


Abstract: 1804.02281
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Mass loss and magnetospheres of massive stars

Authors: Manfred Küker
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: About ten percent of all OB stars show strong, large-scale surface magnetic fields. The interaction of the magnetic field and the wind is believed to be the cause for the X-ray emission shown by these objects. We therefore run numerical simulations in two dimensions for a number the O-type stars and Wolf Rayet stars to study the interaction of the stellar magnetic fields of these stars with their winds. While weak, dipolar magnetic fields leave the wind largely unmodified and the field opens up and becomes a split monopole, the interaction between magnetic field and outflowing gas is more complex as the magnetic field remains closed in some regions and outflowing gas can be trapped. We use the Nirvana MHD code with adaptive mesh refinement to study this interaction with high numerical resolution to model cases with confinement parameters up to $10^4$.



Abstract: 1804.02351
Full Text: [ PostScript, PDF]

Title: Bound on a diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the ADD model

Authors: M.O. Astashenkov, A.V. Kisselev
(Submitted on 6 Apr 2018)
Abstract: The search for ultra-high energy downward-going and Earth-skimming cosmic neutrinos by the Surface Detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) is analyzed in the ADD model with n extra flat spatial dimensions. We assumed that the diffuse neutrino flux dN_nu/dE_nu$ is equal to k E_nu^(-20) in the energy range 10^(17) eV - 2.5 10^(19) eV. Taking into account that no neutrino events where found by the PAO, we have estimated an upper bound on a value of k. It is shown that this bound can be stronger than the upper bound on k recently obtained by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, depending on n and (n+4)-dimensional gravity scale M_D.

Comments: 16 pages, 14 figures


This page created: Tue Apr 17 12:10:32 ACST 2018 by Jarryd Day

For a printable title listing click here
For details on generating this page see the instructions. If there are problems with this page (and I expect there will be from time to time) contact Jose.

For previous lists of abstracts of interest click Previous abstracts of interest